The 2006 Democracy Movement (Nepali: लोकतन्त्र आन्दोलन, romanized: Loktantra Āndolan) is a name given to the political agitations against the direct and undemocratic rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal.The movement is also sometimes referred to as Jan Andolan II ("People's Movement"), implying it being a second phase of the 1990 Jana Andolan. It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Kwanti (sprouted beans soup), chhwela (ground beef), chatamari, (rice flour crepe), bara (fried lentil cake), kachila (marinated raw minced beef), samaybaji (centred around flattened rice), lakhaamari and yomuri are among the more widely recognised. "Nepalese History in a European Experience: A Case Study in Transcultural Historiography. [245][246] King Prithvi Narayan Shah was successful in bringing together diverse religio-ethnic groups under one rule. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. Background. Some former territories had been lost due to the kingdom having participated in the Sino-Nepalese War which ended in both victory and loses, ultimately accepting as a tribute state of Qing dynasty of China from 1792 to 1865. Following the German invasion of Poland, the Kingdom of Nepal declared war on Germany on September 4, 1939. [3], The Government of Nepal has three branches:[3]. [8] Other ethnic groups of Indo-Aryan origin later migrated to southern part of Nepal from Indo-Gangetic Plain of northern India. It is one of the registered political parties in the Election Commission. By James Prinsep", https://www.britannica.com/place/Nepal/History, "British Diplomatic Views on Nepal and the Final Stage of the Ch'ing Empire (1910–1911)", Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist), When a king's looking-glass world is paid for in blood, https://www.lonelyplanet.com/nepal/history, Nepalnews.com, news from Nepal as it happens, https://blogs.wsj.com/briefly/2015/09/23/nepals-new-constitution-at-a-glance/. The historical first of the Constituent Assembly (CA) has endorsed a proposal to amend the interim constitution implementing the declaration of Nepal as a federal democratic republic. At the workplace and educational institutions in urban Nepal, caste-related identification has pretty much lost its importance. [118] After the Maoist Party joined mainstream politics, in the aftermath of the peaceful revolution of 2006, it also adopted multi-party democracy as its official line. [65] This led to the long Nepali Civil War and more than 16,000 deaths. The characteristic architecture associated exclusively with Nepal was developed and refined by Newa artisans of the Kathmandu Valley starting no later than the Lichchhavi period. [310] Tea and buttermilk (fermented milk leftover from churning butter from yoghurt) are common non-alcoholic drinks. However, the Mughal period saw an influx of high-caste Hindus from India into Nepal. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multiracial, multicultural, multi-religious, and multilingual country. In addition to military support, Nepal contributed guns, equipment as well as hundreds of thousand of pounds of tea, sugar and raw materials such as timber to the Allied war effort. After his demise, the valley was divided into three independent kingdoms—Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Patan—in about 1484 CE. In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections in nearly 50 years. By the middle of the 15th century, Kathmandu had become a powerful empire which, according to Kirkpatrick, extended from Digarchi or Sigatse in Tibet to Tirhut and Gaya in India. There are 117 private TV channels and 736 FM radio stations licensed for operation, at least 314 of them, community radio stations. As a result, many witnesses to this repression became radicalized. The timber of domestic structures are finely carved as with their religious counterparts. On May 28, 2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. [86] Saptakoshi, in particular, carries huge amount of silt out of Nepal but sees extreme drop in Gradient in Bihar, causing severe floods and course changes, and is therefore, known as the sorrow of Bihar. It is landlocked, and borders China in the north and India in the south, east and west, while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. [6] Tharus, Tibeto-Burmans who mixed heavily with Indians in the southern regions, are natives of the cental Terai region of Nepal. Ruling party leaders are suspicious about the move of the Oli administration not to disclose the decision through the regular press meet. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. [231] Nepal depends almost entirely on assistance from countries like China, India and Japan, for building, maintenance and expansion of the road network. The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at about 50 mm (2.0 in) per year. The Lichchhavis built monuments and left a series of inscriptions; Nepal's history of the period is pieced together almost entirely from them. Nepal was then established as a federal republic in May 2008 with the vote against the change of all but four members of the 601-seat in Constituent Assembly. It is an independent organization under the command of the Inspector General, who is appointed by and reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs. [322] Bagh-chal, an ancient board game that's thought to have originated in Nepal, can be played on chalk-drawn boards, with pebbles, and is still popular today. [307] The Columbian exchange had brought the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, to South Asia. Finally, Prithvi Narayan Shah entered the valley. So, on 16 November 1951, the king formed a new government of 14 ministers under Matrika Prasad Koirala, which was later dissolved. [182] Nepal has made improvement in sectors like nutrition, child mortality, electricity, improved flooring and assets. After Aramudi, who is mentioned in the Kashmirian chronicle, the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (1150 CE), many Thakuri kings ruled over parts of the country up to the middle of the 12th century CE. The office was created in May 2008 after the country was declared as a republic. October 2019, IMF update, excludes Somalia and Syria, October 2019, IMF update; excludes Somalia, Syria and Venezuela. [7] The first documented tribes in Nepal are the Kirat people, who arrived into Nepal from Tibet roughly 4000 to 4500 years ago and moved into the Kathmandu valley and southern parts of Nepal, before being made to retreat elsewhere by the invading Licchavais from India who ruled the Kathmandu valley in modern-day southern parts of Nepal. Suruwal, simply translated as a pair of trousers, is an alternative to and, more recently, replacement for dhoti, kachhad (Magars) or Lungi (Tharus); it is traditionally much wider above the knees but tapers below, to fit tightly at the ankles, and is tied to the waist with a drawstring. [85] This makes Nepal an earthquake prone zone, and periodic earthquakes that have devastating consequences present a significant hurdle to development. The Human Rights Organisation of Nepal estimated that 14 persons, including several onlookers, had been killed in police firing.[31]. There was no unity among the nobles and they asserted themselves in their respective spheres of influence. [28] In December 1923, Britain and Nepal formally signed a "treaty of perpetual peace and friendship" superseding the Sugauli Treaty of 1816 and upgrading the British resident in Kathmandu to an envoy. [61], The Hindu practice of Sati, in which a widow sacrificed herself in the funeral pyre of her husband, was banned in 1919, and slavery was officially abolished in 1924. The topography of the country— the sun-drenched tarai, deep valleys and high hills makes communica­ tions extremely difficult. The office was created in May 2008 after the country was declared as a republic. Search for: Hit Enter to search or Esc key to close. [214][215] They have their passports seized, to be returned when the employer grants them leave or terminates their contracts. [5] The net primary enrolment rate reached 97% by 2017,[249][250] however, enrolment was less than 60% at the secondary level (grades 9 –12),[251] and around 12% at the tertiary level. [318] Popular children's games include versions of tag,[319] knucklebones,[319] hopscotch, Duck, duck, goose[319] and lagori, while marbles,[319] top, hoop rolling and gully cricket are also popular among boys. Gunakama Deva, who ruled from 949 to 994 CE, commissioned the construction of a big wooden shelter, built from the wood of a single tree, called Kasthamandapa. Nepal has become a Federal Democratic Republic from today after the Constituent Assembly overwhelmingly voted for abolition of the country’s 240-year-old monarchy. [43], Africa's History & Migrations 200,000bc-3,000bc Officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia bordered by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkim, and in north by Tibet. Similar contexts can be found in 'Himbatkhanda', which also mentions that "the masters of Vaishali had started ruling in Nepal by defeating Kirats". Sherpa women wear the chuba with the pangi apron, while Sherpa men wear shirts with stiff high collar and long sleeves called tetung under the chuba. [b] According to Nepal Mahatmya,[c] Nemi was charged with protection of the country by Pashupati. After the death of King Raghava Dev, many Thakuri kings ruled southern Nepal up to the middle of the 12th century CE. On 25 September 1768, as the people of Kathmandu were celebrating the festival of Indra Jatra, the Gorkhali army marched into the city. [26] From beginning to the mid of 18th century, the Thapas and Pandes had extreme dominance over Nepalese Darbar politics alternatively contesting for central power amongst each other.[27]. People raised voices for a federal system of government. Jung Bahadur Rana was the first ruler from this dynasty. Amid student demonstrations and anti-regime activities in 1979, King Birendra called for a national referendum to decide on the nature of Nepal's government; either the continuation of the Panchayat system along with democratic reforms or the establishment of a multiparty system. ; буквенный код NPL Федеративная Демократическая Республика Непал (государство в Гималаях, между Индией и Тибетом; до 28 декабря 2007 г. Королевство Непал; столица Катманду) Once Japan entered the conflict, sixteen battalions of the Nepali Army fought on the Burmese front. Rest of World News: Nepal scripted a new chapter in its history as the new constituent assembly abolished the monarchy and declared the country a "federal democratic repu 1", "Kirates in Ancient India by G.P. [5] According to the 2011 census, Nepal's population was 26.5 million, almost a threefold increase from nine million in 1950. The government's budget is about $13.71 billion (FY 2019/20);[198] expenditure of infrastructure development budget, most of it contributed by foreign aid, usually fails to meet the target. ), Garzilli, Enrica, "Nepal, stallo politico e lentezze nella realizzazione del processo di pace e di riconciliazione", in, Garzilli, Enrica, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévy in 1925 to Hemarāja Śarmā along with Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 20th Century – Famous Indologists write to the Raj Guru of Nepal – No. In the late 14th century, Jayasthiti Malla introduced widespread socio-economic reforms, principal of which was the caste system. Jayasthiti Malla, with whom commences the later Malla dynasty of the Kathmandu valley, began to reign at the end of the 18th century. Rubber bands, or ranger bands cut from tubes in bike tyres, make a multi-purpose sporting equipment for Nepali children, which may be bunched or chained together, and used to play dodgeball, cat's cradle, jianzi[319] and a variety of skipping rope games. Some legal provisions, guided by socio-economic, cultural and religious sensibilities, remain discriminatory. : Famous Indologists Write to the Raj Guru of Nepal – no. геогр. [1] The Anglo-Nepalese War ended in British victory and ceded some Nepalese territory. After the victory in Kirtipur, King Jaya Prakash Malla of Kathmandu sought help from the British and the then East India Company sent a contingent of soldiers under Captain Kinloch in 1767. 19 February ... cementing Nepal's transformation from Hindu monarchy to a federal republic. [223] However, Nepal has been able to exploit only about 1,100 MW. He was a true nationalist in his outlook and was in favor of adopting a closed-door policy with regards to the British. After his death, the Thakuri clan of Nuwakot occupied the throne of Nepal. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio to 94.2 from 99.8 for 2001. Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) NPL105570.E - Nepal: Prevalence and availability of fraudulent documents such as police certificates and reports, medical reports or hospital records, employment records and certificates (2014- June 2016) - August 2016 (PDF) [311] Dal-bhat, centred around steamed rice is the most common example. Nepal Armed Police Force, a separate paramilitary police organization, works in cooperation with Nepal police in routine security matters; it is intended for crowd control, counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism actions, and other internal matters where use of force may be necessary. Descendent of Sanskrit, Nepali is written in Devanagari script. In addition, the public health insurance plan initiated in 2016 which covers health treatments of up to Rs 50,000 for five members of a family, for a premium of Rs 2500 per year, has seen limited success, and is expected to expand. On May 28, 2008, the newly-elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240-year-old monarchy. Later in the day, a mass rally of the Agitation Committee at Tundikhel in the capital Kathmandu was attacked by police forces. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of Gorkha in 1743 CE. ", Garzilli, Enrica, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévi in 1923 to Hemarāja Śarmā Along With Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 21st Cent. According to Pashupati Purana, as a place protected by Ne, the country in the heart of the Himalayas came to be known as Nepal. [30] A general strike was called for April 6. [23] According to Buddhist mythology, Manjushri Bodhisattva drained a primordial lake of serpents to create the Nepal valley and proclaimed that Adi-Buddha Ne would take care of the community that would settle it. The kingdom controlled the areas today known as Tirhoot or Mithila in Nepal and Bihar of India. [209][210] Nepal's share of visitors to South Asia is about 6%, and they spend much less on average, with Nepal sharing 1.7% of the earnings. [182] Foreign exchange reserves were at US$9.5 billion in July 2019, equivalent to 7.8 months of imports. Descriptions of 32, 28 and 29 Kirati kings are found according to the Gopal genealogy, language-genealogy and Wright genealogy respectively. [247], Nepal entered modernity in 1951 with a literacy rate of 5% and about 10,000 students enrolled in 300 schools. The most widely worn traditional dress in Nepal, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped. [312][317] Juju dhau, a sweet yoghurt originating in Bhaktapur, is also famous. Now each province has a separate government along with its federal government at the centre. [202] The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%. Published 19 February 2018. Not only his social and economic views guided the country's socio-economic course for a long time, his use of the imagery, 'a yam between two boulders' in Nepal's geopolitical context, formed the principal guideline of the country's foreign policy for future centuries. According to Hogdson (1847), the earliest inhabitants of Nepal were perhaps the Kusunda people, probably of proto-Australoid origin. [302] Cholo-sari has become the attire of choice for formal occasions, official environs and festive gatherings. The Lower Himalayan Range, reaching 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and "hills" alternating to the north of this range. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. If they want Nepal to become a secular country, then they should also be willing to shun their ‘Cross’ of the Christians, ‘sign of David of the Jews and ‘Kava’ of Muslims. Trump's push to have the election called on Nov. 3 would disregard multiple states' rules that allow ballots to be counted after election night. The king carried out the promised reforms, including selection of the prime minister by the Rastriya Panchayat. Garzilli, Enrica, "The Interplay between Gender, Religion and Politics, and the New Violence against Women in Nepal", in J. Dragsbæk Schmidt and T. Roedel Berg (eds. In Chapter 2, Seira Tamang argues that the debate on federalism is illustrative of the overall weak and limited nature of the discourse on rights in Nepal and of how the main actors in this debate have failed to clarify key points of discussion and lacked detailed engagement with different arguments. Tharus represents 7 % of Nepal’s population and are the fourth largest ethnic groups. King Mahendra was succeeded by his 27-year-old son, King Birendra, in 1972. [233] Although there is high disparity in penetration rate between the rural and urban areas, mobile service has reached 75 districts of the country covering 90% of land area, and broadband access is expected to reach 90% of the population by 2020. The Nepali Congress with the support of the United Left Front decided to launch a decisive agitational movement, the Jana Andolan, which forced the monarchy to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament. The occupation of the Kuti Pass in about 1756 stopped the valley's trade with Tibet. Copy link. This policy helped Nepal maintain its independence during the British colonial era, but it also impeded the country's economic development and modernisation. [a] The precise origin of the term Nepāl is uncertain. Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. State Department - Country Documents Foreign Government Reports. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. The plains were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Koshi, the Narayani, and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline. [311] The latter includes lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon, jimbu and others as informed by culinary conventions. Experts are of the opinion that some or all of the inhabitants of Nepal in the ancient period were likely called 'Nepals', which meant that the word 'Nepal' was used to refer to both the land and its population. The four noble families involved largely in the active politics of the kingdom were the Shah rulers, the Thapas, the Basnyats, and the Pandes before the rise of the Rana dynasty. There emerged a view that Nepal remained the true bastion of unadulterated Hinduism at a time when Indian culture had been influenced by centuries of Mughal, followed by British rule. [313] Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat. Yaksha Malla, the grandson of Jayasthiti Malla, ruled the Kathmandu valley until almost the end of the 15th century. [78] Nepal lies almost completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long Himalayas,[79][80][81][82][83][84] with a small strip of southernmost Nepal stretching into the Indo-Gangetic plain and two districts in the northwest stretching up to the Tibetan plateau.[76]. Academic attempts to provide a plausible theory are hindered by the lack of a complete picture of history, and insufficient understanding of linguistics or relevant Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman languages. [308] The cereals grown in Nepal, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of Nepal's monsoons,[309] and the variations in altitude. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment. Africa's History & Migrations 200,000bc-3,000bc [323][324] Ludo, snakes and ladders and carrom are popular pastimes. Commanders of the Anglo-Nepalese war, Amar Singh Thapa, Bhakti Thapa, and Balbhadra Kunwar are considered war heroes. Led by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (also known as "Prachanda"), the insurgency began in five districts in Nepal: Rolpa, Rukum, Jajarkot, Gorkha, and Sindhuli. Nepal today has a President as Head of State and a Prime Minister heading the Government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. Historians differ about the rule of several kings and their respective times. It took nine years for the new charter to be agreed as a series of brittle coalition governments bickered over the country's future as a federal democratic state. Although very little is known about the early history of Nepal, legends and documented references reach far back to the 30th century BC. [304] The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asia, circa 48 CE, popularised cut and sewn garments in the style of Central Asia. It is bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1973 with the enactment of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973,[107] was substantially expanded. People in rural areas had expected that their interests would be better represented after the adoption of parliamentary democracy in 1990. Taking that opportunity Nanya Deva, a Karnat dynasty king, attacked Nuwakot from Simraungarh. By dividing the indigenous non-Aryan Buddhist population into castes modelled after the four Varna system of Hinduism, he provided an influential model for the Sanskritization and Hinduization of the indigenous non-Hindu tribal populations in all principalities throughout Nepal. In the south-eastern region, Janakpurdham was the capital of the prosperous kingdom of Videha or Mithila, that extended down to the Ganges, and home to King Janaka and his daughter, Sita. The New Constitution restructured Nepal into a federal republic. She has also wished to see the New Year 2076 successful in achieving sustainable peace and prosperity for the country. Various communities in the Terai make sidhara (sun-dried small fish mixed with taro leaves) and biriya (lentil paste mixed with taro leaves) to stock for the monsoon floods. Gunakama Deva founded the town Kantipur (modern-day Kathmandu). That same year, the CA resolved to end the 239 year-old monarchy and declare Nepal a federal democratic republic. According to legendary accounts, the early rulers of Nepal were the Gopālavaṃśi (Gopal Bansa) or "cowherd dynasty", who presumably ruled for about five centuries. The motion for the abolition of the monarchy was carried by a huge majority: out of 564 members present in the assembly, 560 voted for the motion while 4 members voted against it. Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, is found there, as well as the Himalaya Mountains. There are three types of elections in Nepal: elections to the Federal Parliament, elections to the state assemblies and elections to the local government. Other variants found in medieval texts are 'Nepar' and 'Newal'. The country's new designation as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was submitted to the United Nations on 4 August 2008, and later confirmed by the constitution. Dhoti or its variants, usually worn over a langauti, constitute the lower-body garment in the traditional clothing of Tharus, Gurungs and Magars as well as the Madhesi people, among others. [133] Each local unit is composed of wards. The political parties were banned and politicians imprisoned or exiled. [234] According to the Press Council Nepal classification, as of 2017[update] of the 833 publications producing original content, ten national dailies and weeklies are rated A+ class. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. US Government Reports. 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