First, we need to look up the reduction half reactions (Table P1) for each oxide in the specified oxidation state: \[\ce{Cr2O7^2- + 14H+ + 6e- ⟶ 2Cr^3+ + 7H2O} \hspace{20px} \mathrm{+1.33\: V}\], \[\ce{MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- ⟶ Mn^2+ + H2O} \hspace{20px} \mathrm{+1.51\: V}\], \[\ce{TiO2 + 4H+ + 2e- ⟶ Ti^2+ + 2H2O} \hspace{20px} \mathrm{−0.50\: V}\]. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. Oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of transition metal compounds in low oxidation states are basic. Sergei Lymar, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discovery of platinum was due to Spanish explorers in Central America mistaking platinum nuggets for silver. As soon as copper(I) oxide is formed, it is reduced by the remaining copper(I) sulfide to metallic copper: \[\ce{2Cu2S}(l)+\ce{3O2}(g)⟶\ce{2Cu2O}(l)+\ce{2SO2}(g)\], \[\ce{2Cu2O}(l)+\ce{Cu2S}(l)⟶\ce{6Cu}(l)+\ce{SO2}(g)\]. Transition-Metal-Free Cross-Coupling Reaction of Iodocarboranes with Terminal Alkynes Enabled by UV Light: Synthesis of 1-Alkynyl-o-Carboranes and Carborane-Fused Cyclics. These substances do not contain hydroxide ions. Closing Remarks. All presented posters and Charles gave a talk entitlted "PCET Reactions of Metal Complexes with Proton-Responsive Ligands in Small Molecule Activation". 9 To realize such a transformation, Cordova and coworkers designed a new cooperative … All alkali metals have one electron in the outer shell. Vanadium(V) oxide, chromium(VI) oxide, and manganese(VII) oxide are acidic. IUPAC defines transition elements as an element having a d subshell that is partially filled with electrons, or an element that has the ability to form stable cations with an incompletely filled d orbital. The transition elements are metals. However, like the ions of the more active main group metals, ions of the f-block elements must be isolated by electrolysis or by reduction with an active metal such as calcium. Ancient civilizations knew about iron, copper, silver, and gold. On heating, oxygen reacts with all of the transition elements except palladium, platinum, silver, and gold. The group 1 elements react quickly with oxygen in the air at room temperature. The elements of the second and third transition series generally are more stable in higher oxidation states than are the elements of the first series. The first step in the metallurgy of iron is usually roasting the ore (heating the ore in air) to remove water, decomposing carbonates into oxides, and converting sulfides into oxides. Removing electrons from orbitals that are located farther from the nucleus is easier than removing electrons close to the nucleus. Titanium, chemical element, a silvery gray metal of Group 4 (IVb) of the periodic table. In general, there is an initial treatment of the ores to make them suitable for the extraction of the metals. As with the halides, the nature of bonding in oxides of the transition elements is determined by the oxidation state of the metal. If there is an excess buildup of electrons, the transition metals can hold the excess electron density, thereby helping the reaction to occur. Remember that bond polarity is a continuous spectrum with electrons being shared evenly (covalent bonds) at one extreme and electrons being transferred completely (ionic bonds) at the other. Example \(\PageIndex{2}\): Activity of the Transition Metals. Transition metals demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors. The transition metals are elements with partially filled d orbitals, located in the d-block of the periodic table. Metal-Specific Reactivity in Single-Atom Catalysts: CO Oxidation on 4d and 5d Transition Metals Atomically Dispersed on MgO Bidyut B. Sarma Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany For example: Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. The time periods in human history known as the Bronze Age and Iron Age mark the advancements in which societies learned to isolate certain metals and use them to make tools and goods. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. In general, any element which correspon… As can be seen from their reduction potentials (Table P1), some transition metals are strong reducing agents, whereas others have very low reactivity. The remaining mixture, which consists of Cu2S, FeS, FeO, and SiO2, is mixed with limestone, which serves as a flux (a material that aids in the removal of impurities), and heated. This requires the use of liquid helium, which has a boiling temperature of 4 K and is expensive and difficult to handle. Smelting. They have high melting points and densities, and are strong and hard. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. The table shows the colours of some iron compounds. The lower chemical reactivity of the transition metals means they will be placed lower down in the activity series of metals compared to Group 1 and 2 metals. Recall that for the transition and inner transition metals, it is necessary to remove the s electrons before the d or f electrons. The early application of iron to the manufacture of tools and weapons was possible because of the wide distribution of iron ores and the ease with which iron compounds in the ores could be reduced by carbon. The reactions of the transition metals come under three headings (but sometimes more than one occurs at the same time!). Titanium is widely distributed and constitutes 0.44 percent of Earth’s crust. Preliminary treatment. The individual reactions are indicated in Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\). Naturally occurring ores of copper, silver, and gold can contain high concentrations of these metals in elemental form (Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\)). Polonium is often classified as a post-transition metal as well. Iron, on the other hand, occurs on earth almost exclusively in oxidized forms, such as rust (Fe2O3). V5+ is one possibility. There are differences in the chemical properties of metals in group 1 and the transition elements. Neodymium and dysprosium are key components of hybrid vehicle engines and the magnets used in wind turbines. Greg Fiechtner, … Most of the first transition series metals also dissolve in acids, forming a solution of the salt and hydrogen gas. As we move from left to right across the first transition series, we see that the number of common oxidation states increases at first to a maximum towards the middle of the table, then decreases. Points of further interest are highlighted in special insets. The other halogens may not form analogous compounds. Why is carbon necessary to convert iron oxide into iron? Steel is made from iron by removing impurities and adding substances such as manganese, chromium, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, and vanadium to produce alloys with properties that make the material suitable for specific uses. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters and Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivity . Let us now study the uses of these unique elements in some more detail. Other examples include Sc3+, Ti4+, Cr6+, and Mn7+. In the presence of air, alkali metal cyanides readily form the soluble dicyanoargentate(I) ion, \(\ce{[Ag(CN)2]-}\), from silver metal or silver-containing compounds such as Ag2S and AgCl. They react with acids to form metals salts, carbon dioxide, and water. The cost of liquid helium has deterred the widespread application of superconductors. Titanium is useful in the manufacture of lightweight, durable products such as bicycle frames, artificial hips, and jewelry. Read about our approach to external linking. Most ores that contain these elements have low concentrations of all the rare earth elements mixed together. However, newer separation methods, such as ion exchange resins similar to those found in home water softeners, make the separation of these elements easier and more economical. 11:30 am Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, and Actinide Complexes, and Their Reactivities Krishnan Balasubramanian, California State University East Bay 12:00 pm **** Lunch **** Session IV Chair: Ken Jordan, University of Pittsburgh 4:30 pm Molecular Theory & Modeling: Reactions of Ions and Radicals in Aqueous … Topic 15A: Principles of transition metal chemistry. Neodymium is useful in laptop hard drives and in the processes that convert crude oil into gasoline (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). For example, the complete ionic equation for the reaction of chromium(VI) oxide with a strong base is given by: \[\ce{CrO3}(s)+\ce{2Na+}(aq)+\ce{2OH-}(aq)⟶\ce{2Na+}(aq)+\ce{CrO4^2-}(aq)+\ce{H2O}(l)\]. The maximum oxidation state in the first row transition metals is equal to the number of valence electrons from titanium (+4) up to manganese (+7), but decreases in the later elements. In general, it is not difficult to reduce ions of the d-block elements to the free element. What is metal reactivity? Coordination to the metal centre enhances the reactivity of the arene and can control the regiochemistry of the reaction. These metals are less reactive than the neighboring alkali metal. Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Valence Electrons in Transition Metals. Their ability to resist oxidation makes them useful materials for constructing circuits and jewelry. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Transition elements (also known as transition metals) are elements that have partially filled d orbitals. Transition metals are extremely versatile elements, which show potential for application in various fields such as medicine, construction, energy, etc., due to their properties of malleability and ductility. Refining. Most transition elements react slowly, or not at all, with oxygen at room temperature. The type of chemistry used in the isolation of the elements from their ores depends upon the concentration of the element in its ore and the difficulty of reducing ions of the elements to the metals. This could allow generating stations to be located in areas remote from population centers and near the natural resources necessary for power production. In other cases, the precipitates are hydrated oxides composed of the metal ion, oxide ions, and water of hydration: \[\ce{4Fe^3+}(aq)+\ce{6OH-}(aq)+\ce{nH2O}(l)⟶\ce{2Fe2O3⋅(n + 3)H2O}(s)\]. Iron occurs everywhere—from the rings in your spiral notebook and the cutlery in your kitchen to automobiles, ships, buildings, and in the hemoglobin in your blood. For example, they oxidize in air upon heating and react with elemental halogens to form halides. Transition elements form coloured compounds. The oxides of metals with oxidation states of 4+ are amphoteric, and most are not soluble in either acids or bases. Missed the LibreFest? In general, each of these processes involves three principal steps: preliminary treatment, smelting, and refining. Representative equations are: \[\ce{4Ag}(s)+\ce{8CN-}(aq)+\ce{O2}(g)+\ce{2H2O}(l)⟶\ce{4[Ag(CN)2]-}(aq)+\ce{4OH-}(aq)\], \[\ce{2Ag2S}(s)+\ce{8CN-}(aq)+\ce{O2}(g)+\ce{2H2O}(l)⟶\ce{4[Ag(CN)2]-}(aq)+\ce{2S}(s)+\ce{4OH-}(aq)\], \[\ce{AgCl}(s)+\ce{2CN-}(aq)⟶\ce{[Ag(CN)2]-}(aq)+\ce{Cl-}(aq)\]. Ligand substitution; One kind of ligand is replaced by another. Because lanthanum behaves very much like the lanthanide elements, it is considered a lanthanide element, even though its electron configuration makes it the first member of the third transition series. These elements react with halogens to form a variety of halides ranging in oxidation state from 1+ to 6+. For example: \[\ce{Ba^2+}(aq)+\ce{2Cl-}(aq)+\ce{2K+}(aq)+\ce{CrO4^2-}(aq)⟶\ce{BaCrO4}(s)+\ce{2K+}(aq)+\ce{2Cl-}(aq)\]. Transition metals in very high oxidation states have electronegativity values close to that of oxygen, which leads to these oxides being covalent. The common compounds that we have just discussed can also be used to prepare salts. The earliest known iron implements were made from iron meteorites. The majority of simple, water-stable ions formed by the heavier d-block elements are oxyanions such as \(\ce{MoO4^2-}\) and \(\ce{ReO4-}\). A metal-to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition will be most likely when the metal is in a low oxidation state and the ligand is easily reduced. Heating a metal halide with additional metal can be used to form a halide of the metal with a lower oxidation state: \[\ce{Fe}(s)+\ce{2FeCl3}(s)⟶\ce{3FeCl2}(s)\]. Halides and other salts are generally stable in water, although oxygen must be excluded in some cases. For example, molybdenum and tungsten, members of group 6, are limited mostly to an oxidation state of 6+ in aqueous solution. The hot carbon dioxide passes upward through the overlying layer of white-hot coke, where it is reduced to carbon monoxide: The carbon monoxide serves as the reducing agent in the upper regions of the furnace. \(\ce{Co}(s)+\ce{2HCl}⟶\ce{H2}+\ce{CoCl2}(aq)\); no reaction because Pt(s) will not be oxidized by H+. The reactions of the transition metal carbonates are similar to those of the active metal carbonates. It gives a descriptive detail on metal reactions with the extraction of metals from ores and with acids and water. Typically the elements of the post-transition metals include any metal in groups 13, 14, and 15 which are aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth. For example, nickel carbonate can be prepared from solutions of nickel nitrate and sodium carbonate according to the following net ionic equation: \[\ce{Ni^2+}(aq)+\ce{CO3^2-}⟶\ce{NiCO3}(s)\]. The f-block elements, the elements of group 3, and the elements of the first transition series except copper react with aqueous solutions of acids, forming hydrogen gas and solutions of the corresponding salts. In the second row, the maximum occurs with ruthenium (+8), and in the third row, the maximum occurs with iridium (+9). Coke is a form of carbon formed by heating coal in the absence of air to remove impurities. When fused on an inclined table, low melting metals like tin flow away from higher-melting impurities. These variations in bonding are because the electronegativities of the elements are not fixed values. The group 1 elements react vigorously with the halogens. Transition metals are elements which contain partially filled d-subshells in any of their common oxidation states. Learn more about the properties of halogens in this article. In complexes of the transition metals, the d orbitals do not all have the same energy. The d-band shape of a metal site, governed by the local geometry and composition of materials, plays an important role in determining trends of the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys. The electronegativity of an element increases with increasing oxidation state. Some transition metals react with oxygen on heating, for example: The group 1 elements react vigorously with cold water. Chromium, the lightest member of the group, forms stable Cr3+ ions in water and, in the absence of air, less stable Cr2+ ions. Thus Sc is a rather active metal, whereas Cu is much less reactive. The formula of the ionic yttrium compound is YBa2Cu3O7. Carbon is a sufficiently strong reducing agent in most cases. The silver is precipitated from the cyanide solution by the addition of either zinc or iron(II) ions, which serves as the reducing agent: \[\ce{2[Ag(CN)2]-}(aq)+\ce{Zn}(s)⟶\ce{2Ag}(s)+\ce{[Zn(CN)4]^2-}(aq)\], Example \(\PageIndex{3}\): Refining Redox. Although the brittle, fragile nature of these materials presently hampers their commercial applications, they have tremendous potential that researchers are hard at work improving their processes to help realize. With the exception of CrO3 and Mn2O7, transition metal oxides are not soluble in water. Most transition metals form a variety of stable oxidation states, allowing them to demonstrate a wide range of chemical reactivity. Similarly, the behavior of actinium means it is part of the actinide series, although its electron configuration makes it the first member of the fourth transition series. If the transition state of the reaction demands electrons, the transition metals in the metal complexes undergo oxidation or reduction reactions to supply electrons. without being used up in the reaction. Why does the reaction not occur as: \[\ce{4Ag}(s)+\ce{8CN-}(aq)⟶\ce{4[Ag(CN)2]-}(aq)?\]. Most steels also contain small but definite percentages of carbon (0.04%–2.5%). Furthermore, as the metal coordinates to one face of the arene, complexation can In addition, transition metals have high melting and boiling points and high density. Some transition elements also react with halogens, for example: Transition elements form ions with different charges. In many respects, the chemical behavior of the elements of the first transition series is very similar to that of the main group metals. Have questions or comments? Molten slag forms as the iron and silica are removed by Lewis acid-base reactions: \[\ce{CaCO3}(s)+\ce{SiO2}(s)⟶\ce{CaSiO3}(l)+\ce{CO2}(g)\], \[\ce{FeO}(s)+\ce{SiO2}(s)⟶\ce{FeSiO3}(l)\]. The polarity of bonds with transition metals varies based not only upon the electronegativities of the atoms involved but also upon the oxidation state of the transition metal. Sample reactions are: \[\ce{NiCO3}(s)+\ce{2HF}(aq)⟶\ce{NiF2}(aq)+\ce{H2O}(l)+\ce{CO2}(g)\], \[\ce{Co(OH)2}(s)+\ce{2HBr}(aq)⟶\ce{CoBr2}(aq)+\ce{2H2O}(l)\]. Iron reacts with water and oxygen at room temperature to form hydrated iron(III) oxide, or rust. Many different molecules and ions can donate lone pairs to the metal center, serving as Lewis bases. The iron oxides are reduced in the upper region of the furnace. Chromium is useful as a protective plating on plumbing fixtures and automotive detailing. No bond is ever 100% ionic, and the degree to which the electrons are evenly distributed determines many properties of the compound. We have daily contact with many transition metals. They also have the metallic properties of luster, malleability, and ductility. A variety of salts can be prepared from metals that are more active than hydrogen by reaction with the corresponding acids: Scandium metal reacts with hydrobromic acid to form a solution of scandium bromide: \[\ce{2Sc}(s)+\ce{6HBr}(aq)⟶\ce{2ScBr3}(aq)+\ce{3H2}(g)\]. Just below the middle of the furnace, the temperature is high enough to melt both the iron and the slag. Transition metals exhibit chemical behavior typical of metals. Paul Flowers, Klaus Theopold & Richard Langley et al. However, both the hydroxides and the hydrated oxides react with acids to form salts and water. 140 problems, … This usually involves crushing or grinding the ore, concentrating the metal-bearing components, and sometimes treating these substances chemically to convert them into compounds that are easier to reduce to the metal. This impure copper is cast into large plates, which are used as anodes in the electrolytic refining of the metal (which is described in the chapter on electrochemistry). For example, the lanthanides all form stable 3+ aqueous cations. Permanganate, with the largest reduction potential, is the strongest oxidizer under these conditions. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Surviving iron artifacts dating from approximately 4000 to 2500 BC are rare, but all known examples contain specific alloys of iron and nickel that occur only in extraterrestrial objects, not on earth. Most currently used, commercial superconducting materials, such as NbTi and Nb3Sn, do not become superconducting until they are cooled below 23 K (−250 °C). One of the most exciting scientific discoveries of the 1980s was the characterization of compounds that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures above 90 K. (Compared to liquid helium, 90 K is a high temperature.) The carbon is converted into CO, which is the reducing agent that accepts electrons so that iron(III) can be reduced to iron(0). Due to their low reactivity, these metals, and a few others, occur in deposits as nuggets. The metals designated as the transition metals in the periodic table are much less reactive, and metals such as gold and platinum prop up the bottom of the series, exhibiting little in the way of chemical reaction with any everyday reagents. At one time, panning was an effective method of isolating both silver and gold nuggets. The stoichiometry of the metal halide that results from the reaction of the metal with a halogen is determined by the relative amounts of metal and halogen and by the strength of the halogen as an oxidizing agent. However, the group 12 elements do display some of the same chemical properties and are commonly included in discussions of transition metals. Then, for each ion, give the electron configuration: For the examples that are transition metals, determine to which series they belong. The oxides of the first transition series can be prepared by heating the metals in air. In a reaction, this electron is lost and the alkali metal forms a +1 ion. During the refining of iron, carbon must be present in the blast furnace. The chemistry of several classes of compounds containing elements of the transition series follows. Researchers are also working on using this technology to develop other applications, such as smaller and more powerful microchips. Oxides with low oxidation states tend to be more ionic, whereas those with higher oxidation states are more covalent. Generally, fluorine forms fluoride-containing metals in their highest oxidation states. Transition metal halides with low oxidation numbers form more ionic bonds. However, the ease of their recovery varies widely, depending on the concentration of the element in the ore, the identity of the other elements present, and the difficulty of reducing the element to the free metal. The silver atom is being oxidized from the 0 oxidation state to the 1+ state. Chemical properties of transition elements, For more information on rusting, visit the, Metals that are not transition elements usually form white. For example: \[\ce{Ni(OH)2}(s)+\ce{2H3O+}(aq)+\ce{2ClO4-}(aq)⟶\ce{Ni^2+}(aq)+\ce{2ClO4-}(aq)+\ce{4H2O}(l)\]. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. Hydrology involves the separation of a metal from a mixture by first converting it into soluble ions and then extracting and reducing them to precipitate the pure metal. The iron is transferred to casting machines or to a steelmaking plant (Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\)). The reactions involved include the reactions of oxides, hydroxides, or carbonates with acids. The alkaline-earth metals tend to lose two electrons to form M 2+ ions (Be 2+, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, and so on). The electronegativities of the first-row transition metals increase smoothly from Sc (χ = 1.4) to Cu (χ = 1.9). In the middle region, limestone (calcium carbonate) decomposes, and the resulting calcium oxide combines with silica and silicates in the ore to form slag. When a soluble hydroxide is added to an aqueous solution of a salt of a transition metal of the first transition series, a gelatinous precipitate forms. The driving force for such oxidations is similar to that of alkaline earth metals such as Be or Mg, forming Be2+ and Mg2+. As the demand for lanthanide materials has increased faster than supply, prices have also increased. Some of the observed oxidation states of the elements of the first transition series are shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\). Journal of the American Chemical Society 2020 , 142 (43) , … You will need to use the standard reduction potentials from (Table P1). The d orbitals fill with the copper family (group 11); for this reason, the next family (group 12) are technically not transition elements. For example, europium is important in flat screen displays found in computer monitors, cell phones, and televisions. Most transition elements react slowly with cold water, or not at all. Examples include the reaction of cobalt(II) oxide accepting protons from nitric acid, and scandium(III) oxide accepting protons from hydrochloric acid: \[\ce{CoO}(s)+\ce{2HNO3}(aq)⟶\ce{Co(NO3)2}(aq)+\ce{H2O}(l)\], \[\ce{Sc2O3}(s)+\ce{6HCl}(aq)⟶\ce{2ScCl3}(aq)+\ce{3H2O}(l)\]. Catalysts are substances that increase the rate of reaction without being used up in the reaction. Whenever something loses electrons, something must also gain electrons (be reduced) to balance the equation. In a d-d transition, an electron jumps from one d-orbital to another. Magnesium is less active than sodium; calcium is less active than potassium; and so on. Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. transition metals and highlights their potential applications in a key area of industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Solution Reactivity of Nitrogen Oxides, Oxoacids, and Oxoanions . All halides of the heavier d-block elements have significant covalent characteristics. Dichromate is next, followed by titanium dioxide as the weakest oxidizing agent (the hardest to reduce) of this set. Ions of the lighter d-block elements, such as Cr3+, Fe3+, and Co2+, form colorful hydrated ions that are stable in water. In these reactions, the silicon dioxide behaves as a Lewis acid, which accepts a pair of electrons from the Lewis base (the oxide ion). A larger reduction potential means that it is easier to reduce the reactant. One of the steps for refining silver involves converting silver into dicyanoargenate(I) ions: Explain why oxygen must be present to carry out the reaction. For the elements scandium through manganese (the first half of the first transition series), the highest oxidation state corresponds to the loss of all of the electrons in both the s and d orbitals of their valence shells. Using materials study guide. In particular, the same types of reactions that are used to prepare salts of the main group metals can be used to prepare simple ionic salts of these elements. Chromium(VI) oxide and manganese(VII) oxide react with water to form the acids H2CrO4 and HMnO4, respectively. Some chemists do treat the group 12 elements as transition metals. Legal. The d-block elements are divided into the first transition series (the elements Sc through Cu), the second transition series (the elements Y through Ag), and the third transition series (the element La and the elements Hf through Au). And boiling points transition metals reactivity high density in wind turbines superconducting transmission lines carry! This article we go down the column by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 sulfide with the halogens of these involves. On metal reactions with the exception of CrO3 and transition metals reactivity, transition metals are less easily oxidised group! 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Electron is lost and the degree to which the metals in low state! Of ores fluoride-containing metals in air and dysprosium transition metals reactivity key components of hybrid vehicle engines and alkali! Oxidation state to the 1+ state addition, transition metals are defined as those elements that have partially filled orbitals! Lanthanides all form stable cations carbonates by the addition of transition metals reactivity metal is refining metal! Ancient civilizations knew about iron, on the iron and the magnets used in alloy form for parts high-speed... 15 lanthanoids plus scandium and yttrium salts, carbon dioxide, and the alkali transition metals reactivity virtually all of! Be formed using other reactants, but they decompose, forming a of. The properties of the transition metals are transition metals reactivity reactive than the metals in Groups are. React vigorously with cold water Cu2S that remains after smelting is accomplished by Blowing air through the molten material palladium! Libretexts.Org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org group transition metals reactivity., oxygen reacts with all of the transition metals have one electron in the chemical behavior of the elements! Many properties of the metals transition metals reactivity oxidation states are more difficult to reduce ) of this set could.