Leaves are narrow and lightly hairy. At maturity, stiltgrass can reach a height of three feet or more Stems often branch in multiples from the base Seed heads extend from delicate stalks Alabama Natural Resources provides this excellent Field Guide to Identification of Japanese Stiltgrass … When flowers are first visible, many seed will mature even if the plants are mowed or pulled. Dead, straw-colored stems persist through the winter. Trade and brand names used in this publication are given for information purposes only. Appearance Microstegium vimineum is a delicate, sprawling, annual grass that is 0.5-3.5 ft. (0.2-1.1 m) in height. Cooperative Extension System. (2.5-7.6 cm) long, asymmetrical with a shiny, off-center midrib. Since these are rare habitats, invasions there are of top concern for conservation of biodiversity. Figure 5. The ligule, a structure at the base of the inner side of the leaf, of Japanese stiltgrass is short and membranous. Mulches are generally ineffective. Field Guide To The Identification of Japanese Stiltgrass (Mar 2019) Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Japanese stiltgrass has the potential to invade rare floodplain forests in Maine. Fortunately, Japanese stiltgrass has a unique combination of characteristics that Leaves—Leaves are flat, pale green, asymmetrically lance-shaped, and about 1–3 inches in length. Hand weeding is effective on small infestations but is generally not practical for larger infestations. Plants have a shallow fibrous root system. Invasive Species - (Microstegium vimineum) Watch List Japanese stiltgrass is a delicate, low-growing grass with stems that sprawl over one another and roots from the nodes. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is a summer annual grass that generally grows 1-3 feet in a branching, sprawling, mat-like manner. This invasive grass is found in every southern Indiana county, including Monroe County. It is most common in woodlands of the piedmont and mountains of the southeast, less common in the coastal plains. Prohibited U.S. Weed Information; Microstegium vimineum . Japanese stiltgrass is a shallow-rooted, warm-season, annual grass that typically thrives in moist and shaded environments. Its leaves are lance-shaped and asymmetrical with a reflective midrib. Control ** Before using any herbicide, read the label and follow all label directions and restrictions. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Flowers are produced in a branched spike, with 1 to 3 (rarely 6) branches (rachis), each 3 to 5 cm long (Figure 5). Infestations can impact the diversity of native species, reduce wildlife habitat, and disrupt important ecosystem functions. Introduced from tropical Asia, it has spread rapidly in public lands throughout the Eastern United States. © 2020 by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Spikelets are in pairs on the rachis, each 4.5 to 6 mm long and hairy, one sessile and the other on a short pedicel. Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management Horticulture Information Leaflets General Description. Posted by: Evans, C.W., N.J. Loewenstein, C.T. Japanese stiltgrass Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) Infestations spread rapidly and the seed can remain viable in the soil for up to five years. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is an invasive grass that threatens native plants and natural habitats in the eastern United States. JAPANESE STILTGRASS: A PESKY ANNUAL GRASS YOU SHOULD GET RID OF. In general, two applications provided greater control than a single treatment. Dead plant parts persist through winter and well into spring and early summer (Figure 4). This NC State University and NC M. vimineum was originally documented in Tennessee in 1919 and is believed to have been accidentally introduced to the United States through its use as a packing material.Stiltgrass thrives in moderate-to-densely shaded areas subject to regul… Do you accept? Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is bright green with a distinctive silvery stripe of reflective hairs along the midrib of each narrow, lance-shaped blade. When mowed regularly, stiltgrass grows in thin patches but can grow to two feet tall or more if left unmowed. Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: N.C. Very few herbicides are specifically labeled for Japanses stiltgrass control. Japanese stiltgrass resembles a small, delicate bamboo and has a sprawling habit. Infestations can impact the diversity of native species, reduce wildlife habitat, and disrupt important ecosystem functions. The stems are stiff and climb over other vegetation reaching more than 3 feet (~1 meter) in height but will remain prostrate if mowed. Leaf blades are broader than many other grasses, particularly under shady conditions (Figure 2). No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. At least some of those flowers are cleistogamous (self-fertilized before the flower opens). Foliage turns purplish in the fall. Mowing once in late summer can be as effective as frequent mowing in reducing seed production. Source Large Mammals Japanese stiltgrass is a prostrate to erect, sprawling and freely branched summer annual with spreading stems that root at the nodes. Its pale green leaves alternate along a branched stalk, and it resembles a small bamboo plant. Cooperative Extension System operates as the primary outreach organization Leaves are rolled in the bud; ligules are short (~0.5 mm) membranous with hairs on the backside; auricles are absent. Therefore, long-term management programs should emphasize prevention of seedhead formation to deplete the seed reservoir. Correct identification is necessary before beginning any management activities. If preemergence herbicides are to be used, applications must be made before the weed germinates - which occurs several weeks before crabgrass germination. It was likely introduced to the U.S. through packing material from Asia nearly one hundred years ago. Distribution Record Density Literature vs Observation Future Range Future Certainty. The other herbicides should be applied postemergence; all but Acclaim Extra will also provide some residual control. Leaves can be 1-3" long with a distinct silver midrib (Figure 1). Japanese stiltgrass is a prostrate to erect, sprawling and freely branched summer annual with... Habitat and Distribution. Correct identification is necessary before beginning any management activities. Japanese Stilt Grass Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) Additionally, the round nodes along the stem of Virginia cutgrass are covered in fine hairs, while Japanese stiltgrass nodes are smooth. Description: Japanese stilt grass is a non-native lime-green grass, 24 to 40 inches in height. Perennial, warm season grass. Looking like a small bamboo plant, Japanese stiltgrass prospers in most Eastern states, growing in sun or shade and preferring moist habitats. Flower spike of Japanese stiltgrass, Leslie J. Mehroff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Fact Sheets and Identification Links Infestations spread rapidly and the seed can remain viable in the soil for up to five years. Japanese stiltgrass ( Microstegium vimineum ), also called Nepalese browntop, is an aggressive invader of forest lands throughout the eastern United States. The leaves are pale green, lance-shaped, asymmetrical, 1 to 3 … ALABAMA READY - Resources for Dealing with Hurricanes, Field Guide to The Identification of Japanese Stiltgrass, ANR - 1457, The 1/128 Calibration Method for Backpack Sprayers, Latest on Toxicants for Controlling Wild Pigs, Alabama Native to Japan, China, central Asia and India. Dimension, MSMA and Drive (quinclorac) were not effective for postemergence control. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Each lance-shaped leaf has a noticeable stripe of silvery, reflective hairs down the length of the upper leaf surface. It depends on seeds dropped in the fall to survive year to year (just like crab grass). Bargeron, C.E. commitment to diversity. It manages to replace native vegetation in a lot of ecosystems. Stiltgrass is considered one of the most damaging invasive plant species in the United States. that ensures all people have access to information that improves their quality of life However, most preemergence and postemergence herbicides used for crabgrass control in turfgrass and landscape plantings are effective on Japanese stiltgrass. A. Camus (Synonym) Eulalia viminea (Trin.) For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing at 334-844-5696 or extcomm@aces.edu. Download a PDF of Field Guide to The Identification of Japanese Stiltgrass, ANR – 1457. This species is Introduced in the United States. Japanese stiltgrass is … Food. Japanese stiltgrass (also known as bamboograss flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary’s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, Nepaleze browntop, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas, and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low maintenance turf throughout the southeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States and north to New England (Figure 1). N.C. S-metolachlor (Pennant Magnum), benefin + trifluralin (Team Pro), napropamide (Devrinol), and indaziflam (Specticle) were less effective. Visit www.aces.edu/directory. Read our For more information, contact your county Extension office. The stems can root at the nodes. Figure 3. Foliage The leaves are pale-green, alternate, lance-shaped, 1-3 in. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid-September through October. long), pale green and lance-shaped witha distinctive, shiny mid-rib, slightly off-center. Stiltgrass is considered one of the most damaging invasive plant species in the United States. Login to download data. Japanese stiltgrass has invaded and is a tremendous problem weed in shady lawn areas. All rights reserved. A summer annual; reproduction is by seed that germinate in early to mid-spring (early to mid-March in central North Carolina) and sporadically throughout the growing season. Only one of the spikelets in each pair is fertile; the fertile one sometimes having a slender awn 4 to 8 mm long. The leaves are 1-3 inches long, asymmetrical with an off-center mid-rib, and are alternately arranged on the stalk. This content printed from the website located at: Field Guide to The Identification of Japanese Stiltgrass. Moorhead. Glyphosate has been shown to be very effective at low doses. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, Indians. Japanese stiltgrass seedlings, with distinctively rounded first leaves, emerge in early spring through mid-summer. Research has also demonstrated that non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate (many trade names) and glufosinate (Finale) provided excellent control with one or two applications, respectively. With age some of the hairiness of the upper leaf blade may diminish. Identification. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Young seedlings are easily distinguished from other summer annual grasses by the very broad, rounded first leaf (Figure 3). Japanese stilt grass, Nepalese browntop. Consult the herbicide labels for details and restrictions. Microstegium vimineum, commonly known as Japanese stiltgrass, packing grass, or Nepalese browntop, is an annual grass that is common in a wide variety of habitats and is well adapted to low light levels.. Note the relatively short, broad leaves on Japanese stiltgrass. Introduced to the United States around 1918, this annual Asian exotic invasive likely arrived in packing material for fine porcelain destined for Tennessee. Japanese stiltgrass is an annual plant, not a perennial. The ligule, a structure at the base of the inner side of the leaf, of Japanese stiltgrass is short and membranous. Japanese stiltgrass t… Japanese stiltgrass has a shiny, silvery midrib, or stripe down the center of the leaf, and Virginia cutgrass does not. Its leaves are lance-shaped and asymmetrical with a reflective midrib. Infestations typically begin in disturbed sites; once established, infestations can spread to undisturbed areas. Infestations can impact the diversity of native species, reduce wildlife habitat, and disrupt important ecosystem functions. The weed grows similarly to other grassy weeds, but has broader, shorter leaves and tends to … Japanese grass. Fortunately, Japanese stiltgrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. Japanese stiltgrass ... CT-USDA NRCS Invasive Species Identification Sheets (MIVI) Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (MIVI) NPCI Alien Plant Working Group: abstract & image (MIVI) Wildlife. Flame weeding has been shown to be effective in moist sites where fire hazard can be mitigated. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Plants tolerate mild frosts, often flowering after the first frost, but die with hard frost. Japanese stiltgrass is most commonly found in shady, moist, disturbed areas including wetlands, ditch banks, utility rights of way, mulched landscape beds, and low maintenance turf; however, infestations are common in upland forests as well. Please review our Privacy Statement for more information. The stems can root at the nodes. and economic well-being. States Counties Points List Species Info. Japanese stiltgrass is a non-native annual grass that was introduced to the southeastern U.S. from Asia in the early 1900s. commitment to diversity. Figure 4. The Alabama Herbicides specifically labeled for Japanese stiltgrass control include: imazapic (Plateau), fenoxaprop-p (Acclaim Extra), imazamox (Clearcast) and metsulfuron + sulfometuron (Sulfomet Extra). Leaves on older plants are narrowly elliptic, about 8 times longer than wide (3 to 8 cm long and 5 to 10 mm wide), sparsely hairy on the upper surface, and hairless or nearly so on the under side. It made its way to our area only about 15 years ago, and has been spreading rapidly ever since. Foliage. Therefore, mechanical control should be done before flowers are visible. Nimblewill goes dormant in the fall and looks straw-like then begins to green up again in spring Japanese stiltgrass is an annual weed that is also known as Nepalese browntop and Asian stiltgrass. Japanese Stiltgrass Identification. Regular, close mowing reduces seed production. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum), also called Nepalese browntop, is an aggressive invader of forest lands throughout the eastern United States. The sheath has a hairy margin and hairs at the collar region but otherwise is not hairy. Japanese stiltgrass can produce large numbers of seeds – from 16,000 to 50,000 seeds per square meter. Stiltgrass is considered one of the most damaging invasive plant species in the United States. This website would like to use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience. Microstegium vimineum is a delicate, sprawling, annual grass that is 0.5-3.5 feet in height. Everyone is welcome! Figure 2. Furthermore, few herbicides are labeled for use in the wet woodlands where this weed is common. Research suggests that seeds remain viable in the soil for less than 7 years, and that populations rapidly decline when control measures prevent seed production. Native lookalike – Virginia cutgrass AKA whitegrass ( Leersia virginica ) – can cause misidentification ( Envoy ) were effective... 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Both sides and along the margins as effective as frequent mowing in reducing seed.! Only about 15 years ago, and has been shown to be used, applications must made!