Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) was first diagnosed in eastern Africa in the 2010's and is a big threat to their maize-based agri-food systems with estimated losses amounting to US$261 million in Ethiopia and US$198 million in Kenya. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience KARI Information Brochure [ed. Seed producers have incurred an extra cost in the production of seed maize. (Nelson et al., 2011). KEN-02/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. Infection of maize by any of the viruses alone does not cause MLND. Severe outbreak of corn lethal necrosis disease in Kansas. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production. In Ethiopia the disease was observed during in the previous assessment and it was confirmed by ELISA test. Host range and seed-transmission studies of maize chlorotic mottle virus in grasses and corn. Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. By October 2012, a study team sent by CIMMYT and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) confirmed the disease to be maize lethal necrosis (MLN). Update [March 2013]: More information about the pests and viruses associated with Maize Lethal Necrosis disease can be found on the Plantwise Knowledge Bank. maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in 2012 in Arusha and Mwanza regions. In: Description of Plant Viruses, [ed. Rome, Italy: FAO. Symptoms of MLND are more severe than the additive symptoms of either MCMV or the potyvirus virus alone. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central Division, spreading into the neighbouring Chepalungu and Narok South and North Districts and Naivasha. They reported that 30 out of 40 (75%) of University of Hawaii-bred field maize inbred lines tested positive to resistance; however, no complete immunity was observed. Manure and basal/top dressing fertilizers can be applied to boost plant vigour. Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Crop rotation can effectively control MCMV (Uyemoto, 1983). MLND Vector Control• March 2013 Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a devastating viral disease of maize caused by double infection with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of the Potyviridae family members. Maize (Corn) Lethal Necrosis Disease. Carrera-Martinez H, Lozoya-Saldana H, Mendoza-Zamora C, Alvizo-Villasana H, 1989. Description of Plant Viruses, 284 [ed. If there is necrosis of young leaves in the whorl before expansion, then 'dead heart' symptoms will be visible. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. An outbreak of maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaii and possible association with thrips. It spread rapidly across east Africa, compromising food and economic security for several million smallholder farmers. A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers’ fields in eastern Africa in 2011. Occurrence of maize lethal necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries?. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Plant Disease. Plant Disease, 99(6):899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. (2011), trials performed in Hawaii in 2011 found many tropical inbred lines and varieties to be highly resistant to MCMV. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: vector relations, host range and associated viruses. Like most websites we use cookies. Manure and basal/top dressing fertilizers can be applied to boost plant vigour. 9 (2), 79-84. In: Phytopathology, 80 892. 159 (3), 191-193. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2010.01745.x. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Currently the disease has been reported in all provinces in Kenya except North Eastern; Original citation: Wangai et al. Other symptoms include premature aging of the plants and mild to severe leaf mottling. Phytopathology 105:956-965. Doupnik Jr B, 1979. The Kansas serotype 1 also infected Zea mays subsp. Symptoms similar to MLN were reported in Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and … The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. The impact of the disease can been felt in the whole maize value chain. SCMV is spread by maize aphids (Brandes, 1920). SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis in Africa. (1991). Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family. First report of lethal necrosis disease associated with co-infection of finger millet with Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. Plant Disease. KEN-02/2. Maize is planted by a large number of farmers so the increased use of pesticides in the production of maize may have a negative impact on the environment. MLND is caused by a combination of two viruses, one of which is always maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). This material can be fed to livestock, but grain and cobs that are rotten should not be fed to humans or animals. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. Maize lethal necrosis is a disease caused by the synergistic interaction between Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). Characterization of maize chlorotic mottle virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. New Disease Reports, 29:22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022, Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK, 1982. Through breeding, both conventional and transgenic maize seeds, resistance to MCMV can be incorporated into the susceptible maize varieties within a 4-year period. CIMMYT- KARI. Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by co-infection of maize by Maize chlorotic mottle virus (Machlomovirus: Tombusviridae) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (Potyvirus: Potyviridae) or sometimes another cereal virus of the Potyviridae group. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus, wheat streak mosaic virus, sugarcane mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic … Sally Kosgei eulogises former president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 20:39. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Plant Disease, 79:1-6, Niblett CL, Claflin LE, 1978. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. Planting different crops each season will diversify farm enterprises. Plant Disease, 96(10):1582-1583. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Xie L, Zhang J, Wang Q, Meng C, Hong J, Zhou X, 2011. (Immunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificacion y distribucion del virus moteado clorotico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico.) Before MCMV had spread to other islands in Hawaii, it had been controlled for several years in the island of Kaua’i. Agricultural Entomology) Reg no. Phytopathology, 80:1022, Jensen SG, Wysong DS, Ball EM, Higley PM, 1991. Abstract Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. Producers are advised to practice crop rotation for at least two seasons with alternative non-cereal crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, beans, bulb onions, spring onions, vegetables and garlic. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. Plant Disease, 67(1):7-10, Uyemoto JK, Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, 1980. Phytopathology, 80:1060, Kusia ES, Subramanian S, Nyasani JO, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka EM, Pappu HR, 2015. Diseased plants develop symptoms characteristic of virus diseases. Unlike maize streak virus disease though, the streaks of MLND are wider. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis on maize in Ethiopia. Castillo J, Hebert T T, 1974. By April 2012, the disease was reported in altitudes up to 2100 masl and in various parts of the country. Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) combines with a potyvirus in maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), an emerging disease worldwide that often causes catastrophic yield loss. 8:51. Crop Protection, 11(3):248-254, Jiang XQ, Wilkinson DR, Berry JA, 1990. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, Hebert TT, Castillo J, 1973. In Kenya, in areas where MLND was very serious, farmers experienced extensive or complete crop loss (Wangai et al., 2012). Information on the disease could be passed on to the public during field days and Bazaras in churches. and Triticum aestivum (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Bockelman et al., 1982) and Zea mays subsp. CABI is a registered EU trademark. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. The leaves can experience necrosis at the leaf margins that progress to the mid-rib resulting in drying of the whole leaf. To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 (Niblett and Caflin, 1978). This disease is caused by co-infection of plants with two viruses – maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) – and can cause yield losses of up to 90%. Chemical Control MLN is caused by a mixed infection between Maize chlorotic mottle and maize dwarf mosaic viruses; effect of single and double inoculations on symptomatology and yield. Enforcing such regulations can be challenging but, alongside increased awareness by the farming community, they can help reduce the spread of the disease. UGA-01/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. Enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the identification and distribution of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in the state of Mexico. (Immunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificacion y distribucion del virus moteado clorotico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico). IPPC Official Pest Report, No. available in the, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/, Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize-Zambia, Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) -Ethiopia. Compendium record. Imidacloprid is applied as a seed dressing in combination with foliar sprays. Minneapolis, USA, IPPC, 2014. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease Maize lethal necrosis disease was first reported in the ECA region in Kenya in the year 2011 (Adams et al., 2012; Wangai et al., 2012). Producers are advised to practice crop rotation for at least two seasons with alternative non-cereal crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, beans, bulb onions, spring onions, vegetables and garlic. [Distribution map]. Prevention. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis on maize in Ethiopia. Transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by chrysomelid beetles. Status of Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in kenya. Lower incomes could increase stress and make school fees unaffordable, preventing children from completing their education. Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:131-138. In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference. A99/27698/2014 A Thesis submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop Protection (Agricultural Entomology Option) in the First discovered in a corn field in North Central Kansas then in Almena Kansas. Severely affected plants form small cobs with little or no grain set. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):15-19, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. Without adequate quantity and quality of the preferred food, there will be increased incidences of theft and general insecurity in the farming community. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions., CIMMYT- KARI. In: Phytopathology, 80 1060. The disease was controlled for several years in Kaua’i but then spread to other islands including O’ahu and Maui. Corn lethal necrosis in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 99(12):1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Makumbi D, Wangai A, 2013. Prevention and detection of maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND). Status of Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in kenya. In Kansas, crop losses due to MLND have been estimated to be 50-90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980) depending on the variety of maize and the year. The best approach for the management of MLND is to employ integrated pest management practices encompassing cultural control such as closed season, crop rotation and crop diversification, vector control using seed treatment followed by foliar sprays, and host-plant resistance. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. The double infection of MCMV and SCMV or any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group (e.g. Chicago, USA], 16-34. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. MLN is a disease caused by combined infection of maize plants with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV; genus Machlomovirus, family Tombusviridae) (Niblett and Claflin, 1978), with any one of several viruses from the family Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) or wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (Redinbaugh and Stewart, 2018). Carrera-Martinez H, Lozoya-Saldana H, Mendoza-Zamora C, Alvizo-Villasana H, 1989. Virus: Maize Chlorotic mottle virus Symptoms: 1. There is a preliminary report of the disease in Uganda (IPPC, 2014). Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new deadly disease of maize that was reported in Ethiopia very recently. First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. As MLND is due to the co-infection of two viruses, resistance against any one of the viruses would substantially reduce the damage due to the disease. Status of corn lethal necrosis- 1979 update. Seed transmission of MCMV has been reported by Jensen et al. MCMV is transmitted mechanically and spread by several insect vectors including maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) (Jiang et al., 1990), maize rootworms (Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Diabrotica longicornis and Diabrotica virgifera), cereal leaf beetles (Oulema melanopus), corn flea beetle (Systena frontalis) and Chaetocnema pulicaria (Nault et al., 1978; Jensen, 1985; Reyes and Castillo, 1988). Characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle Virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. They range from a relatively mild chlorotic mottle to severe stunting, leaf necrosis, premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears (Castillo and Herbert, 1974; Castillo Loayza, 1977; Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1981). Seed should not be recycled; farmers should plant certified seed only. In Peru, losses in floury and sweet maize varieties due to Maize chlorotic mottle virus have been reported to average between 10 and 15%. The disease has now gained the momentum in spreading to many countries of East African where maize crop is grown simply by Association of Applied Biologists]. Kusia E S, Subramanian S, Nyasani J O, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka E M, Pappu H R, 2015. Endemic in South Central Nebraska where affected fields are located in small river valleys and irrigation districts. Source: Report on status of maize lethal necrosis disease and general maize performance, July 2012 MAIZE PRODUCTION AREA BY PROVINCE - 2011 . In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (No.April) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 912 (Edition 2). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. In Hawaii producers of maize seed spray regularly after planting to control insects that spread the virus (Nelson et al., 2011). A., 2016. The infected plants are frequently barren; the ears formed are small, deformed and set little or no seeds, drastically reducing the yield. English, Matimelo, M.; CABI, 2016, English language, Sedessa, K.; G-Kidan, M.; Abate, H.; CABI, 2015, English language, Kessy, J. G.; CABI, 2014, English language, Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers The following species have been infected by mechanical inoculation: Bromus spp., Digitaria sanguinalis, Eragrostis trichodes, Hordeum spp., Panicum spp., Setaria spp., Sorghum spp. In: Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 7 20-25. Viruses involved in maize lethal necrosis disease. Fitopatologia, 9:79-84, Doupnik Jr B, 1979. In: 2nd International Congress of Plant Pathology, 72. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(3), 705-710. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0943-5, Uyemoto JK, 1983. Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. In Kenya, varieties are being screened for resistance/tolerance by KARI and CIMMYT in two sites Naivasha and Bomet. The level of MCMV resistance varies widely among pure lines that have been tested in Hawaii, so it is considered a quantitative trait (Nelson et al., 2011).Preliminary inheritance studies on the inheritance of traits suggest a polygenic control of the disease, with resistance being partially dominant. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. parviglumis and Zea luxurians (Nault et al., 1982). The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. Disease Symptoms of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Early MLN Symptoms Mosaic and mottling Mild mosaic and mottling Shortened internodes; Severe chlorotic mottle Severe chlorosis and leaf necrosis ‘Dead Heart’ symptoms Necrosis starting from the leaf margin, coupled with mottling Premature drying of the husks Poor or no grain filling The disease has since spread to other ECA countries Adams IP, Harju VA, Hodges T, Hany U, Skelton A, Rai S, Deka MK, Smith J, Fox A, Uzayisenga B, Ngaboyisonga C, Uwumukiza B, Rutikanga A, Rutherford M, Ricthis B, Phiri N, Boonham N, 2014. A new virus disease of maize in Peru. Jensen SG, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Lommel SA, Lane LC, Wysong DS, Doupnik Jr B, 1990. Rome, Italy: FAO. This by itself will cause only minor damage on maize, but when another potyvirus of cereals, such as SCMV, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or maize dwarf mosaic virus … March 2012, First reported in September 2011, at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa Division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Plant Disease, 65(1):39-41, Wangai A, Kinyua ZM, Otipa MJ, Miano DW, Kasina JM, Leley Mwangi PKTN, 2012. https://www.ippc.int/. This information is part of a full datasheet However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). The areas affected constitute major maize production acreage and given the recorded loss of up to 100%, it has become an important food security issue in Kenya. Introduction Maize (Zea mays L.) is a dietary staple and significant cash crop throughout the tropical world; serving as a food security crop for more than 70 million people in Sub Saharan Africa (Melinda et al., 2013). New maize virus disease in Hawaii. Corn lethal necrosis (maize lethal necrosis disease) Virus complex (Maize chlorotic mottle virus [MCMV] and Maize dwarf mosaic virus [MDMV] A or B or Wheat streak mosaic virus [WSMV]) Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Johnsongrass mosaic Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) Maize bushy stunt Mycoplasmalike organism (MLO), assoc. The disease appeared in Kaua’i in early 1990. When MCMV co-infects maize with a potyvirus, the infected plants in the field show a diverse range of symptoms. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Disease Symptoms of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Early MLN Symptoms Mosaic and mottling Mild mosaic and mottling Shortened internodes; Severe chlorotic mottle Severe chlorosis and leaf necrosis ‘Dead Heart’ symptoms Necrosis starting from the leaf margin, coupled with mottling Premature drying of the husks Poor or no grain filling New pest of maize: maize lethal necrosis in Uganda. The disease is the result of… 22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.029.022, CABI, Undated. Enforcing such regulations can be challenging but, alongside increased awareness by the farming community, they can help reduce the spread of the disease. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions. (Nelson et al., 2011). English, Lemma, H.; Michael, D. W.; Tsegay, M.; CABI, 2014, English language. To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. Details may be available for individual references in the state of Mexico, a C,. Symptoms: 1 to maize productivity previous assessment and it was confirmed by ELISA test,. September 2011, a called maize lethal necrosis disease ( MLND ) a... Without adequate quantity and quality of the plants and mild to severe mottling! The causes of maize lethal necrosis disease leaves 7-10 days after inoculation 2 Hawaii producers of maize chlorotic mottle virus SCMV. Mln ; or corn lethal necrosis was first identified in the United causes of maize lethal necrosis disease US. Both MCMV and SCMV or any of the plants and mild to severe mottling. 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