Star magnolias can be damaged by freeze, although they are not as sensitive to cold as the saucer magnolia. Leaves are 1 to 3 feet long, and the fragrant flowers are 10 to 12 inches in diameter. Mature Height/Spread: Magnolias range from the small star magnolia to the massive southern magnolia. Easily Grow a Powerful and Ornamental Superfruit! The plant is found growing in mixed forests, especially on the periphery, also by streams and brooks, usually on sandy soils. ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty’ – This tree is compact and dense, possibly 30 feet tall. Magnolia macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) – This tall tree or shrub (30 to 40 feet) has the largest leaves and blooms of any hardy native North American tree. Seed of magnolia is favorite food of many birds. Preferred soil conditions are as previously mentioned. Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from Virginia to central Florida, and west to East Texas. [9] In the eastern United States, it has become an escapee, and has become naturalized in the tidewater area of Virginia and locally in other areas outside of its historically natural range. The lower side may be light green, or fuzzy and rusty brown. Please see HGIC 2049, Powdery Mildew for more information. When in doubt, be conservative with what you trim. February and March before the leaves appear. Cucumber magnolia fruits Figure 16. 4 5 Form: Cucumber magnolia is certainly the largest native magnolia in the Midwest. The form is more irregular at maturity. The ‘Little Girl’ hybrids (Ann, Betty, Judy, Randy, Ricki, Susan and Jane) are hybrids of M. liliiflora and M. stellata. windbreak or street tree where there is plenty of soil space for root expansion. There are several cultivars available. Little Gem Southern Magnolia Tree (20) Model# MAGLIT01G $ 34 20. Moonglow® (PP #12065; ‘Jim Wilson’) – This cultivar, named after the late host of the Victory Gardens television show, is more vigorous growing than the species, and has larger flowers. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 1015 | Updated: Jan 3, 2020 | Print. Some are open with a lot of space between branches, others are very dense. These ‘Little Girl’ cultivars are hybrids produced by the US National Arboretum and released in 1968. Bracken's Brown Beauty Southern Magnolia Tree (33) Model# MAGBRA03G $ 51 83. Unbeknownst to most magnolia owners, the southern magnolia has several different culinary applications. You’re going to love everything about the Magnolia Vine. The most impressive health benefits of magnolia include its ability to ease anxiety, reduce gingivitis, treat menstrual cramps, and improve respiratory health. The bark of most magnolias is smooth and silvery-gray. The cultivars are listed in order of flowering time, and their flowers range in color from reddish purple to pink. Twig girdler (Oncideres cingulata) is a small grayish-brown beetle that damages twigs by chewing partially through the twig and inserting eggs. Magnolia laevifolia (formally Michellia yunnanensis) – This evergreen shrub or small tree grows to about 12 feet tall, and has brown buds that open to sweetly fragrant, white flowers. Fraser’s magnolia may be found in the mountainous Upper Piedmont SC counties. [10] Despite preferring sites with increased moisture, it does not tolerate inundation. Mature Height /Spread: Star magnolia is a dense, oval-to-rounded deciduous shrub or small, multi-stemmed tree that grows 15 to 20 feet tall and 10 to 15 feet wide. Magnolia Berry is a deciduous, perennial, climbing, woody vine that grows about 9 m (29ft 6in) tall. Control is not generally warranted. They are valued for their large and fragrant white, yellow, pink, or purple flowers and frequently handsome leaves and conelike fruits. [19], It is recommended for seashore plantings in areas that are windy but have little salt spray. Farther north, few known long term specimens are found due to the severe winters, and/or lack of sufficient summer heat. Blooms at an early age. Southern magnolia possess some of the most primitive fruit among angiosperms. The fruit aggregate or seed cone size ranges from 1 to 8 inches. It has small, inconspicuous flowers, light green leaves (6 to 10 inches long) and unusual cucumber-shaped fruit, which turns from a bright green to red in autumn. [22] The leaves have a waxy coating that makes them resistant to damage from salt and air pollution. Teddy Bear® (PP #13049; ‘Southern Charm’). Many bird species feed on the ripened fruit while they are still attached to the seed cones. Magnolia trees are handsome flowering evergreens ideal for use as a specimen or in groupings, in straight or staggered rows to create a dense privacy screen, wind block or noise buffer, and are perfect for framing the corners of taller homes and other buildings and entryways. Virginia botanist John Clayton introduced the … The name magnolia honors a French botanist, Pierre Magnol, who admired the tree so much that he transplanted it to Europe 300 years ago. Typically these scales are pests of magnolias near the coast. [26] Many older cultivars have been superseded by newer ones and are no longer available. The leaves are arranged in an alternate fashion on the stems. Growth Rate: The growth rate of magnolias depends on the species. Cut any circling roots, especially if located at the top of the root ball or close to the trunk. They are also subject to algal leaf spot and two-spotted spider mites. 'Goliath' was developed by Caledonia Nurseries of Guernsey, and has a bushier habit and globular flowers of up to 30 cm (12 in) diameter. Growth Rate: This tree grows at a moderate rate (1 to 1½ feet per year). All are very strongly scented of bananas. Immature fruit aggregate (seed cone) developing on an umbrella tree (Magnolia tripetala). 1 Gal. Orange Tree. Magnolias are generally soft-wooded and may be prone to breakage in ice storms. Magnolias should be planted in full sun or partial shade. Wild birds, squirrels, and other animals eat the seeds. This is especially attractive in the winter landscape. Leaves are shed as new foliage appears. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. The fruit on a magnolia tree resembles a pinecone. Prune drooping branches if located near a patio or walkway. They are usually dark, lustrous green on the upper side, but may be light green, fuzzy reddish-brown or even silvery on the lower side. Magnolia Species: acuminata Family: Magnoliaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): Early Americans once used immature Cucumber tree fruit to flavor whiskey. With a vigorous classic pyramidal shape, this cultivar grows to 35 ft with a 15-ft spread. Deciduous magnolias are susceptible to powdery mildew. [4] It grows on sand-hills in maritime forests, where it is found growing with live oaks and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). There is a wide range of different Magnolia Trees available, and you can find ones that are hardy all the way from zone 4 to zone 9. Some are as wide as they are tall, others are more columnar. Magnolia tripetala (Umbrella Tree) – This native, deciduous tree grows to 15 to 30 feet tall. Erect in habit, it is often planted against walls. The upright tree may grow to 25 feet tall and 10 feet wide, and flowers in the spring before the foliage appears. Although endemic to the evergreen lowland subtropical forests on the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal plain, magnolia grandiflora is widely cultivated in warmer areas around the world. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. Magnolia roots tend to girdle (circle the trunk or root ball). The usually straight-grained wood has uniform texture with closely spaced rings. It is found on the edges of bodies of water and swamps, in association with sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), and black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica). Magnolia fraseri (Fraser’s Magnolia) – This native magnolia is also known as the fishtail magnolia because of the lobed fishtail-like base to the 12 inch long leaves. Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension, Magnolia x loebneri (Loebner Magnolia) – This deciduous tree is 15 to 30 feet tall with a slightly greater spread. It was the oldest tree on the White House grounds and was so famous that it was for decades pictured on the back of the $20 bill as part of a view of the South Front. [25] Most plants in nurseries are propagated by cuttings, resulting in more consistent form in the various varieties available. Unfortunately, this fungus is a pathogen of tree tissues, and these branches die from the point of borer infestation outward. 'Exmouth' was developed in the early 18th century by John Colliton in Devon. We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. With proper pruning, Southern Magnolia trees can also be used as an interesting espalier. In the Northern Hemisphere, the south side of the tree will experience more leaf damage than the north side. Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension. They may be small (3-inch diameter), with thin, strap-shaped petals (star magnolia), or large (12-inch diameter), with wide petals (Southern magnolia). The thick, upright branching habit and dense foliage makes Magnolia grandiflora ‘Alta’ almost appear to be a large shrub. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program. The bark on older, larger stems is silvery-gray and bright green on new twigs. Nine species are native to the United States and Canada and the tree commonly refers to trees of the genus Magnolia that are a part of the magnolia family Magnoliaceae.. p. 196-197. Plant container-grown trees in the early fall for best for best root establishment. Nearly mature, reddish Magnolia grandiflora fruit aggregate (seed cone). [15], It is often planted in university campuses and allowed to grow into a large tree, either with dependent branches, or with the lower branches removed to display the bare trunks. "Victoria" is a form grown in the Pacific Northwest that is reportedly hardy to -12 F. It has a more open habit and shiny dark green leaves with brown undersides. [32] The sesquiterpenes are known to be costunolide, parthenolide, costunolide diepoxide, santamarine, and reynosin. Useful as an open-branched, multi-trunked large shrub or as a small specimen tree. Grows to 20 feet tall and 18 feet wide. The red color of the seeds in Southern magnolia seed pods is just as striking as the orange color of the seeds borne on a star magnolia. The trees also produce a cone-like fruit with brightly colored seeds that attract songbirds. False Oleander scale  (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli) Greedy scale (Hemiberlesia rapax), tea scale (Fiorinia theae), and scurfy scale (Chionaspis furfura) have been diagnosed as pests on Southern magnolia in South Carolina landscapes. These cultivars are later flowering than both the star and saucer magnolias, and their blooms are less often damaged by late spring frosts. [6], Magnolia grandiflora is most commonly known as southern magnolia, a name derived from its range in the Southern United States. It can grow 40 to 50 feet tall and 15 to 25 feet wide. Some are smaller shrubs, and have a brown indumentum (a dense hairy covering) on flower buds, stems and lower leaf surfaces. Prune after flowering. Magnolias (Magnolia spp.) Kidney-shaped seed can be red, orange or pink in color. Magnolia grandiflora is a medium to large evergreen tree which may grow 120 ft (37 m) tall. They bloom in May and June; some bloom through September. Sweet Bay Magnolia is native to the coastal areas southeastern United States north along the Atlantic coast to New York. [31] The leaves contain coumarins and sesquiterpene lactones. [16] It was reputedly planted as a seedling taken from Jackson's plantation, The Hermitage in Tennessee. Prized for its fragrant flowers, showy conelike fruit, handsome foliage, and smooth gray bark, Magnolia virginiana (Sweet Bay Magnolia) can be grown as a graceful, slender tree or as a multi-stemmed shrub. Scales may infest foliage and twigs, especially in dry areas where the tree may suffer stress (see above under problems of M. grandiflora). All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. The three main species discussed here are Southern magnolia (M. grandiflora), star magnolia (M. stellata) and sweetbay magnolia (M. virginiana). Ornamental Features: The flowers are small (2- to 3-inches in diameter), creamy white and lemon-scented. It is also espaliered against walls, which improves its frost-hardiness.[6]. Ornamental Features: It is valued most for its early display of flowers. Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Magnolia trees are a lovely addition to any landscape, and it's safe for any yard or garden because it is nontoxic to humans and animals. Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension. [7] The timber is known simply as magnolia. It blooms in May and June, but some cultivars bloom sporadically throughout the summer. Pear Tree. Magnolia pyramidata (Pyramid Magnolia) – The pyramid magnolia is a rarely encountered native tree to the coastal regions of the state. [4], Magnolia grandiflora was one of the many species first described by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1759,[5] basing his description on the earlier notes of Miller. Yang MH, Blunden G, Patel AV, O'Neill MJ and Lewis JA, Planta medica, 1994, vol. skinneriana, and M. figo var. (Late-blooming cultivars are available.) Banana shrubs are native to China. There are nearly 80 varieties of magnolias, including the southern magnolia that can reach 80 feet tall, the dwarf southern magnolia that only grows about a third of the size of its full-size counterpart, and the star magnolia tree that gets between 15 and 25 feet high. [21], The leaves are heavy and tend to fall year round from the interior of the crown and form a dense cover over the soil surface,[21] and they have been used in decorative floral arrangements. Magnolia seed pods, which resemble exotic-looking cones, spread open to reveal bright red berries, and the tree comes to life with birds, squirrels and other wildlife that relish these tasty fruits. Magnolias may not bloom for many years after planting if grown from seed. Field-grown trees are best planted in late winter or early spring. The species is divided into 3 naturally occurring varieties, M. figo var. In some species, these seed cones may be distorted in shape or knobby due to irregular flower fertilization. Problems: Most magnolias are generally pest-free. Magnolia x ‘Butterflies’ (PP #7456) – This cultivar is a cross between selections of M. accuminata and M. enudata. These large shrubs grow to 10 to 20 feet tall and 10 to 15 feet wide, and bloom in late April through early May. Karen Russ, ©HGIC, Clemson Extension. Magnolol, honokiol, and 3,5′-diallyl-2′-hydroxy-4-methoxybiphenyl exhibited significant activity against Gram-positive and acid-fast bacteria and fungi. Magnolia bark also helps detoxify the body, aid in weight loss, and protect against severe allergic reactions. Others are native to Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and Asia. To increase canopy density and flowering, prune aggressive branches after flowering. Growth Rate: It is a slow grower (3 to 6 feet over 5 to 6 years). Once established, the plants are drought tolerant, and the most drought tolerant of all the Magnolia species. Note: Chemical control of diseases and insects on large trees is usually not feasible since adequate coverage of the foliage with a pesticide cannot be achieved. Landscape Use: Magnolias may be used as specimens, screens, patio trees, hedges, border accents and even container plants. They are especially attractive when the wind blows. Growth Rate: It has a medium growth rate (about 1 foot per year). [4], Exceptionally large trees have been reported in the far southern United States. Problems: This tree has few problems. Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia) flower. Laurel magnolia,[6] evergreen magnolia,[4] large-flower magnolia or big laurel are alternative names. It typically has a single stem (or trunk) and a pyramidal shape. Miracle Fruit. It had also come to France, the French having collected it in the vicinity of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. Southern magnolia has yellowish-white sapwood and light to dark brown heartwood tinted yellow or green. Noteworthy Characteristics. Most flowers encountered tend to be white, pink or purple. About 50% of them will germinate, so if you want to try your hand at growing your very own magnolia grandiflora from seed, go ahead. You should never prune more than 1/3 of the tree at once, so always start with branches that are either dying or already dead. It is a long-lived tree. Its ivory white flowers are 4 inches wide with a lemon scent. These trees are stately as adults, especially when the lower limbs have been pruned to prevent them from dragging. [8] It is killed by summer fires, and is missing from habitats that undergo regular burning. [15] One of the earliest people to cultivate it in Europe was Sir John Colliton of Exeter in Devon; scaffolding and tubs surrounded his tree, where gardeners propagated its branches by layering, the daughter plants initially selling for five guineas each (but later falling to half a guinea). The plant will take about 11 years to bear fruit, and in northern states will most likely grow into a bush rather than a tree. Recommended cultivars include ‘Leonard Messel,’ ‘Merrill,’ ‘Ballerina,’ and ‘Spring Snow.’. There are about 125 species, some of which are native to the United States. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Spider mites can be controlled with sprays of insecticidal soap or 2% horticultural oil. This is because the three-inch long flowers are yellow-green in hue and tend to blend in with the trees foliage. Magnolia is resistant to most pests and diseases. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. 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