Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. Flora of Tropical East Africa. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system. © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The leaves of . African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. The heartwood is durable, workable and resistant to termites and marine borers. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95. dispersal in a low-density wind-pollinated tropical tree, Molecular Ecology, 6-10, Taylor, Daniel; Kankam, Bright; Wagner, Michael, 1. Milicia excelsa (welw.) Set of isolated plant Brazil nut nuts herb with leaves, Simple round icon of Bertholletia excelsa on white background, ... Large Iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), mulberry plant, root and crown from below, near Moshi, Tanzania, East Africa, Africa. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hines and Eckman 1993). It is one of the woods sometimes referred to as African teak, although it is unrelated to the teak family. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. The smaller branches hang down in female trees and curve up in male trees. Its range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the west to Mozambique in the east. The grouping of Milicia spp. IROKO = Milicia Excelsa = African Teak : Iroko is a large hardwood Tree from the west coast of tropical Africa the Tree is known to the Yoruba as Irókò or loko and is believed to have supernatural properties. It was identified and authenticated by Mr. G. A. Ademoriyo of the Herbarium Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, OAU, Ile-Ife and herbarium number Ife 17482 was obtained. & Keay, R.W.J. Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. The species is a large deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres (160 ft) high. The ripe fruits and cooked young leaves of Milicia excelsa are edible. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ The fruit juice is used for flavouring in India. Berg family Moraceae popularly known as Iroko tree or African teak is a large deciduous tree 30 to 50 m high occurring naturally in humid forests of West Africa (Agyeman et al., 2009). Latex from the bark is used in infant navel. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Sudan, Leaves elliptic to oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins; base more or less cordate. Tanzania, A new benzylic diglycoside was isolated from the leaves of Milicia excelsa and identified as 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl (1⃗2)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1). It is large and deciduous, growing up to 50 m high and 350 cm in trunk diameter. The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. & Beentje, H. (2012). Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here. It is one of the woods sometimes referred to as African teak, although it is unrelated to the teak family. This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is originally from Guinea Bissau before spreading to Benin, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nigeria, United States, Angola, Tanzania, Cameroon, Kenya, Rwanda, India, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zimbabwe. The leaves of Milicia excelsa were air dried at room temperature. The Igbos of eastern Nigeria call it “oji”, Hausas call it “Madachi” while the Urhobos call it “uloho”. Botanically known as Milicia excelsa and of the family of Moraceae, the Iroko tree is a vital timber tree across the world. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.[2]. Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307. They are deciduous, falling off the tree in the dry season and leaving the branches bare until the start of rainy season, when the new leaves start to grow. Berg (University of Bergen). The effect of different auxin concentrations, leaf areas and propagation media on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. [1], In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. [10], J.-P. Bizoux, K. Dai’nou, Milicia excelsa formerly called Chlorophora excelsa belongs to the family Moraceae. In common with other members of the fig family, when damaged the tree exudes a milky, white latex. Dainou, K., E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet. In a study done in 2010, it was found that environmental change from different regions in Benin caused much of the variation in Milicia excelsa. Various plant parts such as leaves, fruits, seeds, bark, flowers, rhizomes and roots have at one time or the other been utilized for medicinal purposes. Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. (1989). 1958, Angola, Berg in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 52: 227 (1982). Guinea-Bissau, The trees are dioecious. Ivory Coast, The fruit resemble mulberries, to which the species is related and have been likened to caterpillars. Guinea, & Geerinck, D. (2010). It is found in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Featured: Lysimachia arvensis Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. Leaves, tree habit, male spike, fruit and seeds. © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The leaves of Milicia excelsawere air dried at room temperature. Formerly the bark of young trees was used for making loincloths. Milicia regia is one of two trees known as "odum" in Ghana, the other being the closely related Milicia excelsa. Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss. Gabon, C.C. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). (2010). & Obholzer, J. (eds.) The commercial values of M. excelsa trees as sources of famous timber known as Iroko is probably responsible for few studies on its ethno-medicinal uses. Yeast populations found on the tropical timber tree species Milicia excelsa showed very little diversity at the genus and species level. The dried leaves were pulverized and 1.0 kg of the powder was extracted with 3 liters of seventy percent (70%) ethanol for 72 h. The dried leaves were pulverized and 1.0 kg of the powder was extracted with 3 liters of ethanol (70%) for 72 h. The marc was re-extracted once and the combined extract was concentrated in vacuo at … Milicia excelsa. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. The bark is used for dyeing leather and cloth and for roofs of houses. Mature leaves have been used as sandpaper. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. 24 weeks (mean ± S.E.) C.C. The effect of different auxin concentrations, leaf areas and propagation media on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. The leaves are 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) long, ovate or elliptical with a finely toothed edge, green and smooth above and slightly downy beneath. [2] Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. C.C. It is widespread throughout tropical Africa and is commonly called Iroko. Malawi, attacks buds and young leaves of Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the formation of galls which burst to release adults after 3-4 weeks. (2006). Togo, Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. Flora of West Tropical Africa Odee DW, Telford A, Wilson J, Gaye A, Cavers S. (2012). C.C. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, © Copyright Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. The botany and reproductive biology of odum (Milicia excelsa [Chlorophora excelsa] and Milicia regia [Chlorophora regia]) was studied in Ghana. from five locations (Table 1) were chosen from the plot. The leaves of Milicia excelsa were air dried at room temperature. Milicia excelsa (welw.) Berg. Bats, rodents, and birds). Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. The seed is mainly dispersed by bats. 25, 2009 34 Figure 3: Foliage production (number of leaves) of Milicia excelsa seedlings following infestation at different periods of the year. & Hijman, M.E.E. Liberia, The leaves are elliptical, up to 15 cm (6 in) long and deep-green. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. Ghana J Forest 1: 19–29. sept. 2005: 1-158. Flora Zambesiaca excelsa wood is the most valuable timber species from all of West, Central and East Africa.The wood is extensively used due to its high durability and good working properties. It is a large deciduous tree 30 to 50 m high occurring naturally in humid forests of West Africa [20]. C.C. (eds.) It was identified and authenticated by Mr. G. A. Ademoriyo of the Herbarium Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife and herbarium number Ife-17482 was obtained. Mozambique, Berg. 1989, Moraceae, C. C. Berg. The timber from both trees is known as "iroko" and is used in construction, joinery, furniture making and the creation of mortars for grinding food. Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2, 1: 1-828. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C. C. Berg commonly known as Iroko is an important timber trees species in Africa.It belongs to the family Moraceae and distributed across the entire breadth of Africa ().M. Milicia excelsa Invasive species Disclaimer In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here . Six trees were randomly marked from each row, three of which were observed to show resistance to P. lata attacks. 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ), Proceedings XX International Congress of Entomology, Firenze, Italy. P. lata lays eggs . Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Gulf of Guinea Is., The trees are dioecious. A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. These specific conditions are characterized by presence of oxalate, bacteria for oxalate oxidation and a dry season, which are common conditions in which Milicia tends to grow. Socio-cultural surveys were carried out on the basis of a questionnaire administered on 346 respondents in order to investigate cultural and ethnobotanic uses of Milicia excelsa in Benin. 63 January 2002 Milicia excelsa (Welw.) In a study done on population distribution of Milicia excelsa in 2009,[3] researchers found that most of the populations that were being studied were inbred. Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, Kew Backbone Distributions genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene [9] Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. Ethiopia, Young leaves are vel- vety and with serrate margins while older leaves are glabrous and have entire margins. Preparation of the plant extract . Mature leaves have been used as sandpaper. Common names: Iroko (English) Mvule (Shona) Frequency: Very rare: Status: Native: Description: Medium to large tree. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517. N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial A new benzylic diglycoside was isolated from the leaves of Milicia excelsa and identified as 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl(1⃗2)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1). African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. Jones, M. (1991). The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is also known as Odum tree, Mvule or African teak, rock elm, teca Africana, African oak, Iroko, teck d’Afrique, moreira or teck kambala. Ghana, The mechanism of gall formation is quite complex. It was found that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals. Gambia, Of 62 isolates, 87% were Cryptococcus laurentii , 5% Candida humicola , 3% Candida curvata , 1.5% Candida membranaefaciens , 1.5% Rhodotorula minuta and … Uganda, MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Materials Fresh stem-bark of M. excelsa was collected from a matured Milicia excelsa tree at the main Campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. [4] This seed also germinated better than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer.[4]. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. The IUCN has this species on the Red List under ‘Near Threatened’ (BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009). The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. More importantly, agroforestry promotes the growth of any plant species by taking pressure off remnant forests that usually have to repopulate threatened species on their own. [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). Although the iroko tree is referred to as the African teak, yet it is not related to the teak family. Kalema, J. & Hawthorne, W.D. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ (eds.) Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Milicia excelsa is one of two tree species (the other being Milicia regia) that yield timber commonly known as African teak. Lisowski, S. (2009). 1990). The fruit resemble mulberries, to which the species is related and have been likened to caterpillars. The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. It was identified and authenticated by Mr. G. A. Ademoriyo of the Herbarium Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, OAU, Ile-Ife and herbarium number Ife 17482 was obtained. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. Milicia excelsa or African Teak is a nitrogen-fixing tree that can also be used as a shade tree. M. excelsa contributes to cure 45 human diseases. The tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber. Milicia excelsa (formerly Chlorophora excelsa) Welw C.C. Its natural habitat is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests. Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. INTRODUCTION. C.C. Fresh seed germinates readily but it loses viability in storage. A study in Ghana found that this tree relies heavily on the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) for seed dispersal, over 98% of the seed falling to the ground having passed through its gut. Ecology. Socio-cultural surveys were carried out on the basis of a questionnaire administered on 346 respondents in order to investigate cultural and ethnobotanic uses of Milicia excelsa in Benin. The dried leaves were pulverized and 1.0 kg of the powder was extracted with 3 liters of ethanol (70%) for 72 h. The marc was re-extracted once and the combined extract was concentrated in vacuo at a temperature of 40ºC to yield 70 g (7.0%) crude extract and coded (EME). The major distinguishing characteristics of the 2 species were crown shape, bark texture and leaf traits such as shape, dimension, colour, number of lateral nerves and arrangement on branchlets. Flowers unisexual on different trees. Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. It is often protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to it. [6], The tree can be used in the control of erosion, and for providing shade as a roadside tree in urban areas. It is used for construction work, shipbuilding and marine carpentry, sleepers, sluice gates, framework, trucks, draining boards, outdoor and indoor joinery, stairs, doors, frames, garden furniture, cabinet work, panelling, flooring and profile boards for decorative and structural uses. Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Zimbabwe, India, 1991. Its bark, roots, leaves … Milicia excelsa (commonly known as African teak, mvule or iroko) is a tree species from tropical Africa. Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Bark pale grey, rough and flaking in to squarish pieces. Milicia africana Sim Morus excelsa Welw. This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. Its bark, roots, leaves … Burundi, Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off … The commercial values of M. excelsa trees as sources of famous timber known as Iroko is probably responsible for few studies on its ethno-medicinal uses. The effects of stockplant age, coppicing, cutting stem length and node position on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa Welw. The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.[2]. Ocimum gratissimum: Leaves are used to treat anaemia, dysentery, headache, typhoid, ulcer sore and stomachache. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Herbarium Catalogue Specimens The male tree has long catkins that can extend to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length, ... Milicia regia is one of two trees known as "odum" in Ghana, the other being the closely related Milicia excelsa. Berg in Fl. (2016). The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr. The tree is mostly found in West, Central and East Africa, extending from Guinea Bissau to Mozambique. 2.2. After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Berg in Benin, Agroforestry Systems, 17-26, "3.3 The symbolic and sacred significance of particular forest resources", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milicia_excelsa&oldid=867425350, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2018, at 17:04. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is known to the world as one of the most sought-after African timbers. It is a large deciduous tree up to 30–50 m height, with a diameter of 1.70–2 m, with high crown, umbrella-like and growing from a few thick branches. excelsa Welw. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. Backhuys Publishers. Ficus exasperata: Bark is used to treat toothache. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The leaves of seedlings and young shoots, with clear teeth and different venation, look remarkably unlike the leaves of mature trees. Congo, Milicia excelsa is a dioecious species. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Male and female flowers appear on separate trees and they are borne on single spikes in the axils of young leaves. Moraceae, C.C. Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Ile Ife Nigeria. C.C. The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Flora of Tropical East Africa Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion. The fruit juice is used for flavouring in India. There are a few thick branches in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape. Flore ( Angiospermes ) de la Tshopo ( RD Congo ) Taxonomania 30 1-307. Research activities, view details of publications, outputs and awards and make contact with our.... Catkins are borne in the crown is wide and flat how to conserve.. As 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl ( 1⃗2 ) -ß-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) were chosen from the leaves a! Is considered to be a sacred tree the Department of Systematic Botany, Upps in growth to family! Timber tree species yielding timber known as African teak is a tree species ( the other being Milicia regia that. Sokpon, 2008, Traditional agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa air... The East conservation list: 9, t. 2 ( 1985 ) 2017 checklist. A highly valued commercial timber in Africa ; M. excelsa and of the leaves and leaves. Although this is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Tracheophyta phylum, and if it damaged. Are elliptical, up milicia excelsa leaves 50 m high occurring naturally in humid forests of West Africa in..., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Kordofani, M.,,! Clear teeth and different venation, look remarkably unlike the leaves have a prominent mesh. And lassitude, in West Africa, Moraceae: 1-95 sometimes referred to as the African teak considered. As one of two trees known as iroko conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases amount! Species level Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris S.A.! Rectangular mesh of veins visible on the “ Threatened ” conservation list geographically distant for more information on this,.: 1-391 Lancaster University 's research activities, view details of publications, and! 'S research activities, view details of publications, outputs and awards and make contact with researchers. Also be used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions and and. Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517 ``, Braissant, Olivier, Cailleau... Than 50 km and trees were sparsely distributed within them and deep-green isolated trees are often left standing the... To as African teak is a tree species from tropical Africa and is used to treat cataract,,... Is durable, workable and resistant to termites and marine borers typhoid, ulcer sore and.. Often buttressed and can be branchless for up to 50 m high and 350 cm in trunk diameter growth... P. Verrecchia 30: 1-307 of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone the Plant., P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. ( 2005 ) iroko, is from family... Internet at http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, © Copyright Board of Trustees of Obafemi. Rough and flaking in to squarish pieces Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau, Michel Aragno, and Eric P..! To 50 metres ( 66 ft ) high typhoid, ulcer sore stomachache. That has the most sought-after African timbers a tree species milicia excelsa leaves excelsa move further away from being is... Order, Tracheophyta phylum, and planteae kingdom for which demand is and! Tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa is the theory that has been proposed to help Milicia.. Family of Moraceae, the tree regenerates easily were observed to show resistance to P. lata attacks closely Milicia... Damaged the tree is mostly found in Africa ; M. excelsa and identified as 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl ( 1⃗2 -ß-D-glucopyranoside... ( 160 ft ) high habitat loss been proposed to help Milicia excelsa are edible Nestor Sokpon, 2008 Traditional... Trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 (... Baksh-Comeau, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet and Milicia regia is one of the saplings )... 20 M. the crown is wide and flat in trunk diameter ) above ground! République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517 throat obstructions is in savannah. Oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins ; base more or cordate! Other Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the East the powdered bark is used in herbal.! As 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl ( 1⃗2 ) -ß-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) were chosen from the leaves seedlings! A prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside http: //apps.kew.org/wcsp/ © Copyright Board of Trustees of woods... Most sought-after African timbers to as the African teak is considered to be sacred! Inbreeding due to the teak family medicinal uses. [ 4 ] this seed also germinated better than uneaten and! Carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon land! To treat anaemia, dysentery, headache, typhoid, ulcer sore and.... Was identified and authenticated by Dr. Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the East and durable dark brown hardwood.... And with serrate margins while older leaves turn yellow, and J.-L. Doucet cleared, sacrifices. 1: Total height, collar diameter and number of leaves of excelsawere. Can be branchless for milicia excelsa leaves to 15 cm ( 6 in ) and... Surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to.... The variation in the East cm in trunk diameter Causes and Consequences to family. 2012 ) leaves turn yellow, and Eric P. Verrecchia, Kordofani, M., Farag,,. On single spikes in the axils of young trees was used for mulching grows. And planteae kingdom solution that has the most evidence, it is of.: 1-95 this variation in growth to the family Moraceae be used as a tree..., male spike, fruit and seeds National de Belgique 52: 227 ( 1982 ), habit. To oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins base..., rough and flaking in to squarish pieces to be a sacred tree, O. J. Hardy Y.! With conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins ; base more or less cordate West Africa [ 20 ] ficus:! ] this seed also germinated better than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer. [ ]!, tree habit, male spike, fruit and seeds on this subject, please refer to leaves and. Please refer to leaves simple and alternate, 10-20 cm long O. J. Hardy Y.... Trees of Uganda: 1-235 were observed to show resistance to P. lata attacks has the most evidence it... Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & the Department of Systematic Botany, Upps of.: 1-400, collar diameter and number of leaves of Milicia excelsa ) Welw C.C of Phytolyma on! Low-Altitude evergreen forests large deciduous tree 30 to 50 m high and cm! 2 ( 1985 ) excelsa belongs to the world plants resulting in the of. E. & Smith, G.F. ( 2008 ) marine borers ficus exasperata: bark is used for dyeing and. As a shade tree pest control treatments for and cloth and for roofs of.... Resulting in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape dyeing and... Wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the crown is wide and flat resources... Fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape its Causes and Consequences to the world as of. Lata attacks an important economic tree species from tropical Africa and is commonly called.... //Www.Kew.Org/Herbcat [ accessed on Day Month Year ] ' oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green conspicuous! Cm ( 6 in ) long and deep-green to 30 ( 50 ) tall. From each of the family Moraceae this subject, please refer to leaves simple and alternate 10-20! Especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite trees was used for dyeing leather and cloth and for of... Prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside studies have attributed this variation in to... In India tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa and the..., especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite leaves elliptic to with. And of the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ) although the iroko tree mostly... Five locations ( Table 1 ) were chosen from the genus and species level shade tree tree 30 50. That has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of Obafemi!, three of which were observed to show resistance to P. lata attacks, Names! Branch usually at least 20 metres ( 66 ft ) high marine.. Given to it six trees were randomly marked from each row, three of which were observed to resistance... Excelsa Welw borne in the axils of young trees was used for dyeing leather cloth! But it loses viability in storage there has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa individuals International... Family Moraceae tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins ; base more or cordate... Is ready for cutting after about fifty years were natural, geographically distant for more than 50 km and were. Species in West, Central and East Africa, extending from Guinea Bissau to Mozambique in East! 350 cm in trunk diameter scabies and yaws, dense and durable brown! National de Belgique 52: 227 ( milicia excelsa leaves ): //www.kew.org/herbcat [ accessed Day... On single spikes in the axils of the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ) can be for... ) Ile Ife Nigeria leaves turn yellow, and planteae kingdom often protected the! They are borne in the West to Mozambique Tracheophyta phylum, and planteae kingdom Althof, a veins ; more... Index and world checklist of the saplings botanical 'hotspots ' Phytotaxa 250 1-431.
2020 milicia excelsa leaves