The most socially progressive movement for independence at this point was one that was emerging in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and was led by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. The latter were particularly favored by Great Britain and the United States because of the anticipated commercial opportunities that this might open up. Spell. This is the currently selected item. Sixty-three years later the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics was established. Activity; Contacts; Add . A revolutionary wavefollowed, resulting in the … 1820: Liberal revolts in Spain and Portugal; Agustin Iturbide unifies independence forces in Mexico around the Three Guarantees. They performed an updated version of the play at the Institute of the Americas (UCL) on 15 May 2013. The destruction of the Spanish fleet greatly weakened Spain's ability to control events in the colonies. 1828: Uruguay gains independence from Brazil. Lati… Event; Mediafile; Tag Show more filters. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica), and Mexico. The answer to this question varies widely based on what wars for independence you are talking about. 1804 . In some countries, independence was followed by civil war. The Spanish Empire in America was reduced to three Caribbean islands: Cuba and Puerto Rico. Thwarted in his attempt to rebuild a French empire in North America, Napoleon Bonaparte turned his armies to Europe, invading and occupying many countries, including Spain and Portugal in 1808. The success of the American Revolution showed that foreign rule could be thrown off. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas. STUDY. The small group of foreign volunteers that the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda brought to his homeland failed to incite the populace to rise against Spanish rule. He later returned with a new army, while the war had entered a tremendously violent phase. Encomienda System. "Latin American Wars of Independence The army led by the loyalist José Tomás Boves demonstrated the key military role that the Llaneros came to play in the region's struggle. This particularly conservative transition to independence attracted limited U.S. interest, while Britain was a key player in Brazil throughout this period. Napoleon names king of Spain. Popular sovereignty. There were two types of units: the expeditionary units created in Spain and militias created in the Americas. For the case of Spain and its colonies, in May 1808, Napoleon captured Carlos IV and King Fernando VII and installed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish Throne. By the beginning of the 1820s, Britain's foreign secretary, George Canning, and U.S. President James Monroe were competing in an effort to give support to, and gain influence in, an increasingly independent Latin America. 1813: The French Army is driven from Spain by the British Army and Spanish guerrillas; José Gervasio Artigas reinvades Uruguay. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the British, Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas. Paraguay gained its independence on May 15, 1811, after a plan organized by various pro-independence nationalists including Fulgencio Yegros and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia. San Martín, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Maipú, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1820, proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1821. By the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, less than 1% of the soldiers were European. The original edition was published in 1994. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. 1810 (April): Junta in Venezuela assumes power and overthrows the Captain-General. Independence Movements in Latin America Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes European domination of Latin America Spread of Enlightenment ideas American and French revolutions Growth of nationalism in Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Revolutionary leaders emerge Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king Immediate Effects … The juntas swore loyalty to the captive Fernando VII and each ruled different and diverse parts of the colony. Bolívar's forces defeated Domingo Monteverde's Spanish army in a series of battles, taking Caracas on August 6, 1813 and besieging Monteverde at Puerto Cabello in September 1813. These wars were fought 1808-1826. South America after independence. The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. Most of Fernando's subjects were loyal to him in 1808, but after he was restored to the Spanish crown in 1814, his policy of restoring absolute power alienated both the juntas and his subjects. Just as it served as a beacon of hope for the enslaved, Haiti was a warning of everything that might go wrong for elites in the cacao-growing areas of Venezuela and throughout slave societies in the Americas. Most of the southern South American colonies of Spain, including Argentina, Chile, and Perú, fought their wars of independence under another influential military leader and politician, José de San Martín, (known as "the Liberator" in Argentina). Independence in Spanish America: Civil Wars, Revolutions, and Underdevelopment.
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