As the nurse taking care of the diabetic patient, you must know how to properly care for them, especially newly diagnosed diabetic. Diabetes Mellitus is a cluster of metabolic conditions that are caused by an increase of glucose in the blood. Pathophysiology:Diabetes: Type 1 occurs when there is an autoimmune (the body attacks the pancreas) response. Over time, the body starts to break down fat and muscles to get power, and if left uncontrolled, this leads to weight loss. In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the patient is making SOME insulin…However, one of two things is happening. This problem is known as Diabetes, and if left untreated can develop into serious complications. So there are quite a few complications of having elevated blood sugars, which we’ll continue to look at throughout this module. Step 1 of the pathophysiology of diabetic ketoacidosis is there is not enough insulin. Well remember normally the insulin helps unlock the cells so that glucose can move into them. If the body is insulin resistant, then it requires much more insulin to have the same effect on the blood glucose. Select all that apply. A post shared by NurseMiriana (@nurse.miriana) on May 28, 2020 at 12:49am PDT, […] As we explained before, when the body does not have glucose in the cells, it starts to break down fat for energy. 7 Gestational Diabetes occurs in some pregnant women during their third trimester. Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. Diabetes Mellitus Nursing Care & Pathophysiology, Diabetic Complications - The Nursing Journal, Oxygen Therapy & Masks | Respiratory Nursing Care- The Nursing Journal, The Endocrine System: Anatomy & Physiology, Hernia Repair: Pre & Post- Operative Nursing Care, Pathophysiology of Tuberculosis (TB) | Nursing School Notes, Eating a healthy diet with minimal sugars (don’t forget sugars include: carbohydrates and fruit). Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of all types of diabetes is related to the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus There is a direct link between hyperglycemia and physiological & behavioral responses. This may sound like a trite statement, but in reality it is true. Nurses commonly encounter patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus in their practice. The nurse is planning education for this client. So, it leaves the bloodstream and enters into the cells. In this video, I’ll give you a super easy, step-by-step breakdown of the pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes. The body loses its capacity to concentrate excreted urine. Start a trial to view the entire video. Start learning today for free! Even the smallest wound can become massive and infected and they could lose their toe, foot, or even their leg because of it. So this is something we need to be aware of. We’ll talk about this more in the HHNS lesson. Buy; Abstract. There is a total lack of insulin in type 1 diabetes, while in type 2 diabetes, the peripheral tissues resist the effects of insulin. In most cases, this hyperglycemia is the result of impaired glucose tolerance due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction on a background of chronic insulin resistance. (Books), Diabetes Type 1 That poor circulation and pro-inflammatory process can also lead to poor wound healing, so you’ll see in nursing care we’ll talk about inspecting every inch of their skin, especially on their feet and between their toes. If we don’t have insulin, all of this glucose will have to stay outside of the cells – so the amount of sugar left in our bloodstream will be elevated – hence our increased blood sugar levels. Either they just aren’t making enough to deal with the excess blood glucose, or, their body has become resistant to the effect of insulin. ?? (Cheat Sheet), Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus The most common form of Diabetes is Type 2, and it’s mostly found in middle-aged or old people. Knowledge of normal glucose metabolism and basic pathophysiology of diabetes can help educators: Explain diabetes to clients. This lesson is part of the NURSING.com Nursing Student Academy. Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. The nurse is teaching foot and skin care to a client with diabetes. If there’s no insulin, all of this sugar just hangs out in the bloodstream and the cells get NOTHING. This course breaks down what happens when each gland is overactive or underactive. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later. Research suggests that pregnancy hormones may affect the insulin receptors and insulin’s action. When the body can not sufficiently move sugar from the blood to the cells, blood sugars rise and hyperglycemia occurs. Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Gestational diabetes is a complication of pregnancy. But in diabetes mellitus, the body has problems moving the blood glucose into the cells, so the body ends up with too much glucose in the blood and very little of it in the cells. Nursing Points, For more information, visit www.nursing.com/cornell. It is classified as Type 1 (Insulin dependent or juvenile- onset diabetes) and Type 2 (Non- insulin dependent or also called as insulin- resistant disease). Respond on two different days who selected different factors than you, in one or more of the following ways: Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. 5. ?????? Picmonic is research proven to increase your memory retention and test scores. Those are the basics of the pathophysiology and complications of Diabetes. … How about these healthy ???????? Now, because of the damage to the small vessels and nerves, we’re also going to see neuropathy – they’ll get numbness and tingling in their hands and feet – that just makes the poor wound healing worse because they may not even be able to feel that something is wrong. 4. Both of these can occur at the site of SubQ insulin injection. The beta cells are attacked and can no longer produce and secrete insulin. (Biodigital), Glucose Absorption in Type 2 Diabetes So let’s remind ourselves what insulin does. Both insulin and glucagon are made in a group of cells within the pancreas known as Islets of Langerhans. Normal Glucose Metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus is when blood glucose (sugar in the blood) is unable to move into the cells and help in the making of ATP…AKA energy. Diabetes is one of the leading comorbidities in the US and it’s a serious problem for our patients. I know, for me, as a night shift nurse it was always frustrating because they wanted the 6AM blood sugar to be under 200 or super controlled after surgery – but it was always the highest one of the day. And finally, high blood sugars are very hard on the kidneys, so all patients with diabetes are at risk for nephropathy and ultimately chronic kidney disease if their sugars aren’t well controlled. Down-regulation of diabetogenic autoimmune response by the spleen cells derived from animals treated with adjuvants could also be explained by CD4+ T cell subsets interplay (Ulaeto … This type of Diabetes occurs because the body’s own immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when there is a dis-balance between the demand and manufacture of the hormone insulin. When the insulin receptors are activated, glucose is sucked into the cells. There are a couple of other complications that we can see, especially in patients who receive SubQ insulin therapy. Diabetes can lead to serious complications over time if left untreated. Understand the actions of diabetes medications. 1. 3. Type II DM usually occurs because of genetics and or environmental factors. Insulin is necessary to take sugar from the blood to the cells for energy. Stir chocolate until smooth, then add the hazelnuts and stir. The Metabolic and Endocrine Course reviews the major organs and glands involved in secreting hormones in our bodies. Both that inflammation and that hyperosmolarity can do damage to the vessels as well as nerves surrounding them. How can I apply them? Learn Diabetes Assessment - Diabetes - Medical Surgical Nursing & Pathophysiology for Nursing RN faster and easier with Picmonic's unforgettable images and stories! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. For these patients we encourage a small bedtime snack. Which statement by the client indicates a need for more education? This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and has been checked for plagiarism using automated software. Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences. 99kcal/truffle For the filling: * 60 g rolled oats gluten-free * 130 g dates (pitted) * 50 g almond butter * 1 tsp instant coffee powder * 1 tsp vanilla extract * 3 tbsp cocoa powder * 40 g finely ground hazelnuts * 2 tbsp coconut/hazelnut milk or coconut cream * 1/4 tsp salt For assembling: * 16 pieces whole toasted hazelnuts 25 g, skinned For the coating: * 120 g dark chocolate chopped * 1 tsp coconut oil * 60 g whole toasted hazelnuts 1. Diabetes mellitus is a condition of insufficient insulin production or action – either because all of their beta cells have been destroyed and they have NO insulin, like in Type 1, or because they just aren’t producing enough or they’re resistant to it, like in Type 2. (Biodigital), Diabetes Type 2 As we learn more about the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, we find that there is more yet to be discovered. Diabetes Insipidus is a heterogenous disorder, wherein large volumes of dilute urine are excreted. Feel Like You Don’t Belong in Nursing School? Okay guys, we’re going to talk about Diabetes Mellitus. The hormone responsible for regulating fluid balance is called arginine vasopressin (AVP), also called vasopressin or anti-diuretic hormone. So if the beta cells are attacked, we have either a lack of insulin or an insufficient supply of insulin for our body’s needs. Explain the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and most common treatments. Here’s what we’ll talk about: 1. The pathophysiology of diabetes is related to the levels of insulin within the body, and the body’s ability to utilize insulin. Hyperglycemia occurs because the cells are resistant to insulin or because there is not adequate insulin production/secretion. Which signs or symptoms should be included in the teaching? 2. Lipoatrophy is a loss of SubQ fat, remember atrophy means shrinking. Below are review notes for Diabetes Mellitus to help you study for the NCLEX exam or your nursing lecture exams. Pathophysiology of diabetic ulcers can be seen in Figure 2. The Patient with Diabetes Mellitus Nursing Program NUR 155 Contemporary Nursing Practice … So, what does that mean for them? Types of diabetes. They used to call this Adult Onset, but more and more we’re seeing children diagnosed because of poor lifestyle and eating habits. Either way, you’ll notice patients may tend to have higher sugars in the mornings than they do in the afternoon. The pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance (insulin insensitivity), cell damage, glucose transport (GLUT4) dysfunction, and impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production. For example, evidence-based diabetes care can give patients clarity on what unhealthy behavior is and how to modify it. There is a lack of beta-cell leading to complete insulin deficiency. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. The nurse is caring for a client with poorly managed diabetes mellitus. Elevated blood glucose levels can lead to sight loss, amputation, kidney failure, stroke and death. The Glucagon hormone acts oppositely. that take literally 10 minutes to make? Either way, sugars can become dangerously elevated. Melt the chocolate & coconut oil in a microwave. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371451, Diabetes Mellitus The nurse assistant lets the nurse know that all four clients are hyperglycemic. It is the most common endocrine disease; since 1980, prevalence has risen from 4.7% to 8.5% of the adult po… NCLEX® and NCLEX-RN® are Registered Trademarks of the NCSBN, HESI® is a registered trademark of Elsevier Inc., TEAS® and Test of Essential Academic Skills™ are registered trademarks of Assessment Technologies Institute, CCRN® is a Registered trademark of the AACN; all of which are unaffiliated with, not endorsed by, not sponsored by, and not associated with NRSNG, LLC or TazKai, LLC and its affiliates in any way. In type 2 diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but the body doesn’t respond to it appropriately. Make sure you check out the rest of this module to learn about nursing care, as well as DKA, and HHNS. Pathophysiology The body regulates the level of glucose in the blood by the help of two hormones: insulin and glucagon . Normally, the pancreatic beta cells release insulin due to increased blood glucose concentrations. (Image), 140 Must Know Meds Pancreatic disorder resulting in insufficient or lack of insulin production leading to elevated blood sugar, Insulin is the key to allow glucose to be used by the cells for energy, Body attacks beta cells in pancreas (responsible for insulin production), Ketosis due to gluconeogenesis (body making glucose from fat cells), Beta cells do not produce enough insulin for body’s needs, May or may not require insulin, depending on severity, Coronary Artery Disease → increases morbidity & mortality, Related to inflammation and hyperosmolarity in vessels, Neuropathy → decreased sensation, especially in feet/toes, Nephropathy → may result in Chronic Kidney Disease, Loss of SubQ fat at insulin injection site (rotate sites), Fatty mass at insulin injection site (rotate sites), Reduced insulin sensitivity between 5-8am, Night time hypoglycemia results in rebound hyperglycemia in the morning hours, Acute exacerbation of Type I Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic State (HHNS), Acute exacerbation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus, That Time I Dropped Out of Nursing School. Published on Jun 3, 2016 DKA diabetic ketoacidosis nursing management pathophysiology & treatment. And, as always, happy nursing! The key things you MUST know about diabetes for nursing school 2. Correspondence. Now, go out and be your best selves today. This may sound like a trite statement, but in reality it is true. Nursing Older People. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. So patients tend to have poor circulation, especially in the smaller vessels in the body – like in their hands and feet. So it does not activate the Glucose Transporters, which means that no glucose will be sucked into the cell. So let’s recap. We could also see retinopathy, which affects the tiny vessels in the eyes and can lead to vision loss. So first, let’s look at the basic patho – Diabetes is an immune disorder where the body attacks the beta cells of the pancreas. In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, patients have absolutely NO insulin production. Insulin resistance, largely caused by obesity and physical inactivity, both precedes and predicts type 2 diabetes. 7 SimpleNursing.com 82% on Your Next Nursing Test NEURO: CNS Alzheimer’s disease PLAN OF CARE: Safety/ LOC/ stress free Path physiology The classic neuropathology findings in AD include amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary Which of the following education points is appropriate? Blood glucose (aka. In this lesson we’re going to review what happens in the patient’s body with Diabetes Mellitus, and in the next lesson we’re going to talk about what we do about it medically and in our nursing care. (Picmonic), 00.01 Metabolic/Endocrine Course Introduction, 01.02 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Addisons Disease, 01.03 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Cushings Syndrome, 01.04 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Diabetes Insipidus (DI), 01.05 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate antidiuretic Hormone Secretion), 01.06 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Hyperthyroidism, 01.07 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Hypothyroidism, 01.08 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, 01.09 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Hyperparathyroidism, 02.01 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Module Intro, 02.02 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus (DM), 02.04 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), 02.05 Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar Non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS), 03.01 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for SIRS & MODS, 03.02 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Sepsis, 03.07 Nursing Care and Pathophysiology for Scleroderma. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words. A series of blood tests are done to determine whether the patient has Diabetes and which type it is. Insulin decreases the blood glucose levels, while glucagon increases the blood glucose levels. Symptoms of Diabetes Explained. Other things we see in diabetic patients are the dawn phenomenon and the somogyi phenomenon. In a healthy person, insulin is produced in response to the increased level of glucose in the bloodstream, and its major role is to control glucose concentration in the blood. The body makes insulin to assist with this process. Glucose attracts water because it is osmotically active, and this leads to an increase in urination. Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology (Step-By-Step) Diabetes is one of the most common disorders you’ll see at clinical, so you MUST know about it for nursing school. My 9pm and 3am blood glucose levels would be fine, then I’d take the 6am and it would be 250. Input your search keywords and press Enter. If we give insulin in the same spot multiple times in a row, it can start causing a lot of problems in that Subcutaneous tissue. contain alpha cells which secrete glucagon, and beta cells which secrete insulin. If you don’t know what I’m talking about, then you should read: Diabetes Mellitus Nursing Care: Overview & Pathophysiology […]. Pathophysiology of Diabetes Insipidus. Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. blood sugar) is the primary source of energy for our body, and we get this through the food and drinks that we ingest. So you can see here, that glucose channel is closed until insulin comes in and unlocks it. The difference here is that the body is getting Just Enough glucose into the cells to not have to find that same workaround like Type 1 does. The responsibility of educating diabetic patients is often left to the nurses. Just remember Type 1 is NO insulin, Type 2 is not enough insulin or insulin resistance. Lipohypertrophy is a SubQ fat mass, remember hypertrophy means excess growth. 2. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) review for maternity nursing students! (2018). Now, even if you’re brand new into nursing school, you’ve probably heard of this or know someone who has it, or have at least heard about it on the news. Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. At NURSING.com, we believe Black Lives Matter ✊, No Human Is Illegal , Love Is Love ️‍, Women's Rights Are Human Rights , Science Is Real , Water Is Life , Injustice Anywhere Is A Threat To Justice Everywhere ☮️. Select all that apply. 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